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Full text of "The hot springs of New Zealand"

THE HOT SPRINGS 



OF 



NEW ZEALAND 



HERBERT 




PrEBentpb to 
^^E pnilJcrsrtg of Toronto Jlibrarg 

front tl|e ^ooks of 
professor ^^elyien ^foart ^enberson 

(1877-1945) 

(3[ar mnnxj vmvs Clmtrmau of 

tljE '^tbrary Qloiitmittce of 

the (Sfacuitu of ^Hebicme 



THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 




THE HOT^^li^liN|GS 
OF NEW ZEALAND 



BY 



ARTHUR STANLEY HERBERT 

O.B.E., M.D., B.S. (LoND.) 

CONSULTING BALNEOLOGIST TO, AND LATE GOVERNMENT BALNEOLOGIST TO, 
THE DOMINION OF NEW ZEALAND 



WITH THREE MAPS AND EIGHTY-SEVEN ILLUSTRATIONS 




LONDON 

H. K. LEWIS & CO. LTD. 

1921 



PREFACE 

The object of this book is to bring before the notice of the 
medical profession the value of the mineral waters of New 
Zealand. 

In New Zealand itself, and to a certain extent in Austraha, 
they are of course well known, and indeed it is probable 
that in no other country has a larger proportion of the 
population taken advantage of the presence in its midst 
of thermal springs. 

Thus, although the population of New Zealand is only 
about a million, there were given, during the seventeen 
years in which the author was in charge, nearly two and 
a half million baths at Rotorua alone, although of course 
a certain proportion of the bathers were visitors from over- 
seas. 

The events of the last few years have brought home to 
all of us the necessit}^ for making the British Empire self- 
supporting, and it is well that the available resources of 
that Empire should be made known as widely as possible 
amongst its members. 

It is with no thought of belittling the springs and spas 
of the British Isles that the merits of those so far afield are 
thus brought forward. 

No one more than the author, who himself practised for 
several years at an English spa, is more fully impressed with 
their value, but all of us must also admit their limitations. 

The British Isles are deficient in certain waters, and for 
that reason great crowds of patients every year flocked 
to foreign spas. Many of these spas are now, and perhaps 
will be for many years to come, practically closed to British 



VI 



PREFACE 



visitors, and it behoves us to see whether within the con- 
fines of our own dominions we cannot fill the deficiency. 

With the exception of purgative waters, the missing 
springs can certainly be supplied in New Zealand, and there 
are certain waters, such as the nascent sulphuric acid waters 
at Rotorua, which are of a potency and therapeutic value 
undreamed of in England, and which are wholly unrepre- 
sented in Europe. 

The author, in pressing the merits of the New Zealand 
spas, makes no claim that they can compete on what may 
be termed social lines with those of the Old World, In the 
matter of theatres, music, indoor amusements, and so forth, 
they are woefully deficient ; but in his opinion, what they 
lack in this direction is more than counterbalanced by 
their other attractions. 

Change of environment is one of the most potent weapons 
in our armamentarium ; and the change of scene from, 
say, an English town to the Thermal District of New 
Zealand with all its wealth of weird and wonderful sights, 
its beautiful lakes, rivers, mountains, asd forests, its geysers, 
boiling springs, and mud volcanoes, its Maori villages with 
their picturesque inhabitants, the cottages crazily and pre- 
cariously perched on the brink of boiling destruction, the 
housewife washing clothes in a hot spring, or nonchalantly 
cooking the dinner in a steam-hole — all these things provide 
more change of scene than a mere trip to a cosmopolitan 
Continental spa. 

For such shortcomings as the New Zealand spas may 
possess — and they are of course as numerous as elsewhere — 
the author must bear, at any rate in part, the blame. He 
was appointed in 1902 as Government Balneologist to advise 
in the development of the health resorts of New Zealand. 
Such a unique appointment carries with it corresponding 
responsibilities, and the author is keenly aware of his de- 
ficiencies. The wealth of material was so great, the choice 
so large, that it was a matter of extreme difiiculty to choose 
a policy. Rightly or wrongly, the line he advised was 



PREFACE vil 

to develop one spa, Rotorua, thoroughly, rather than attempt, 
with hmited means, to develop half a hundred ; and so 
the visitor may rest assured that at Rotorua, at any rate, 
he will find the balneological amenities to which he is 
accustomed nearer home. 

Further, he will find, if he be so minded, an unwonted 
charm in the simplicity and naturalness of the lesser spas ; 
and if he be so unconventional as to venture to leave the 
tourist beaten track, and philosophic enough to put up 
with a few minor discomforts, his venturesomeness will not 
go unrewarded. Some of the author" s pleasantest recollec- 
tions are of long excursions into the " back country," of a 
tent pitched before sunset and bedded with fern, and of a 
bath in a spring or a hot bubbling river under the stars, 
while the " billy " boiled for the evening meal. 

There comes to all of us, unhappily, a time in which the 
illusions of youth are lost. The author labours under no 
illusions that a book such as this will be read through from 
beginning to end, save by the heroic few. The busy prac- 
titioner has so many and diverse calls, intellectual and 
physical, on his time, that it is contrary to all our experience 
of human nature to expect him to delve deeply into the 
intricacies of a subject in which he may be only remotely 
concerned, and he may well feel inclined to skip such chapters 
as those dealing with the principles underlying balneological 
treatment. 

Should he, however, desire fuller information, and have 
no standard work on balneology at hand, these pages have 
been inserted, not without some diffidence, for his guidance. 

In the tabulated analyses of mineral waters the results 
are compiled from the figures published by the Dominion 
Analyst, and are expressed as salts in grains per gallon. 
According to modern views this is not a strictly scientific 
method of expression, as it is now generally assumed that 
the various substances present in mineral water exist, in 
part at any rate, in the form of dissociated ions and not of 
actual salts. 



Vlll 



PREFACE 



A result expressed in terms of ions is, however, un- 
intelligible to any but the expert chemist, and would be 
of no practical guidance to the doctor — and practical utility 
is essentially the aim of this work. 

Too much stress, however, should not be laid on the mere 
chemical composition of a water. The majority of the 
so-called rheumatic and allied diseases are now known to be 
toxaemias of bacterial origin, and a mineral water is used 
even more often for its physio-therapeutic than for its 
pharmacological properties. Balneology, in fact, marches 
hand in hand with bacteriology, and it would even appear 
as if, in the near future, in the treatment of many chronic 
diseases it will be regarded as an adjunct, though an in- 
valuable adjunct, of that branch of science. 

With the exception of the tables of analyses, however, 
the remainder of the work is original, and represents the 
author's personal experience and views, and, as an excursion 
into hitherto untrodden country, is published with the hope 
that it may be interesting as well as useful. 

The first few chapters have been inserted largely for 
the benefit of the patient himself. 

There can be very few intelligent visitors to the Thermal 
District who do not burn with curiosity to imderstand 
something of the why and wherefore of the wonderful thermal 
phenomena they see around them ; and so a brief, and, it is 
trusted, a comprehensible, account is given of the geological 
factors involved in the evolution of geysers, volcanoes, and 
other " sights." 

Finally, the author acknowledges gratefully the kindness 
of the Government Meteorologist in contributing a chapter 
on the climate of New Zealand. 



Arthur S. Herbert. 



I Upper Phillimork Place, 
Kensington, W. 
March 192 1. 



CONTENTS 



PART I 
DESCRIPTIVE 

CHAPTER 

I. KOUTES AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

II. HYDROTHERMAL PHENOMENA . 

III. HOT SPRINGS ... 

IV. GEYSERS AND BOILING MUD SPRINGS 



PAGE 

3 
15 
24 
33 



PART II 
• BALNEOLOGICAL 

V. THE MINERAL-WATER HEALTH RESORTS — SPAS 

VI. THE SULPHUR SPAS 

VII. THE ALKALINE SPAS 

VIII. THE SALINE SPAS . 

IX. THE CALCIUM SPAS 

X. THE SIMPLE THERMAL SPAS 

XI. CLASSIFICATION OF THE RHEUMATIC DISEASES 

XII. SPAS SUITABLE FOR INDIVIDUAL CASES . 

XIII. CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES OF THE MINERAL 
WATERS .... 

XIV. THE CLIMATE OF NEW ZEALAND 

ix 



51 

54 
III 

123 

130 

134 

137 
144 

162 
211 



CONTENTS 



PART III 
BALNEOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES 

CHAPTER 

XV. SPA TREATMENT ..... 

XVI. MINERAL- WATER TREATMENT 

XVII. ACCESSORY PHYSICAL TREATMENT . 

XVIII. DIET ....... 

XIX. ENVIRONMENT — CLIMATE — SUGGESTION . 

APPENDIX ...... 

INDEX .... 



225 
229 

268 
274 

276 

277 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FIG. 

1. WAIROA GEYSER, WHAKAREWAREWA, ROTORUA 

facing page 3 

2. MAP SHOWING NEW ZEALAND IF PLACED IN CORRESPOND- 

ING LATITUDE OF NORTHERN HEMISPHERE , page 5 

3 MAP OF NORTH ISLAND, SHOWING THERMAL DISTRICT ,, 9 
3A. MAP OF THERMAL DISTRICT . . . . .,13 

4. DIAGRAMMATIC SECTION OF A VOLCANO . . ,, IQ 

5. WAiMANGU IN ERUPTION .... facing Page 20 

6. WAIMANGU IN ERUPTION . . . . ,, ,, 21 

7. DIAGRAM OF THE FORMATION OF ACID MINERAL WATER page 30 

8. A SMALL GEYSER, WHAKAREWAREWA . facing Page 33 

9. A. FUMAROLE ON SLOPING SURFACE . 
9, B. FUMAROLE ON A CLIFF- FACE 
9, C. FUMAROLE ON GENTLY SLOPING SURFACE 
9, D. FUMAROLE ON HORIZONTAL SURFACE 

10. DIAGRAM OF THE GREAT GEYSER OF ICELAND 

11. PAPAKURA GEYSER ..... facing page 38 

12. A CLOSE VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF PAPAKURA GEYSER 

facing page 38 

13. A GEYSER OPENING THROUGH A POOL OF BOILING WATER 

facing page 38 

14. ANOTHER VIEW OF THE SAME GEYSER . „ ,. 38 

15. THE MOUTH OF AN EXTINCT GEYSER . ,, , 38 

xi 



page 


34 


> J 


35 


• » » 


36 


• » ) 


37 


> 


38 



xu 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



FIG. 

i6. 

17- 

i8. 

19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 

23- 
24. 

25- 

26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 

30. 

31- 
32. 

33- 
34- 
35- 

36. 
37- 



38. 



THE " BRAIN-POT," WHAKAREWAREWA 
DIAGRAM OF GEYSER 
DRY-MOUTHED GEYSER . 



facing page 38 

page 40 

., 42 



BOILING SPRING ON BANKS OF WAIKATO RIVER . ., 43 

DIAGRAMMATIC SECTION OF CONE OF GEYSER . ,,44 



facing page 44 
. 44 



A CHAMPAGNE POOL 

THE MALFROY GEYSERS, ROTORUA 

WAIROA GEYSER, WHAKAREWAREWA 

CONE OF WAIKITE GEYSER 

A SILICA TERRACE . 

SILICATED TWIGS AND LEAVES . 

FLOOR OF A SILICEOUS POOL . 

MUD VOLCANO IN ACTIVE ERUPTION 

A BOILING MUD POOL 

A BOILING MUD POOL 

SURFACE OF A " PORRIDGE-POT " 

" THE INFERNO." TIKITERE 

CONES OF MINIATURE MUD VOLCANOES 

A STUDY OF MINIATURE MUD-VOLCANO CONES ,, 

THE SAME CONE AS IN FIG. 28, IN A QUIESCENT STAGE 



.. 44 

.- 44 

.. 44 

.. 45 

page 45 

., 46 
facing page 48 

48 
48 
48 
48 
48 



HINEMOA S BATH 
A GIANT AZALEA 
FLY-FISHING AT OKERE 



39. WAR CANOE . 

40. THE MAIN BATHS, ROTORUA 



facing page 48 

»i • ' D — 

61 

.. 61 

page 61 
facing page 62 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Xlll 



FIG. 
41. 

42. 

43- 

44- 

45- 
46. 

47- 
48. 

49- 
50. 
51- 
52. 
53- 
54- 
55- 
56. 
57- 
58. 

59- 
60. 

61. 

62. 

63. 
64. 
65. 
6f 



THE BATHS, ROTORUA .... facing 

OHINEMUTU . ..... 

MAORI WOMAN COOKING IN A STE A:\I-H0LE 

A NATURAL KITCHEN RANGE 

A HOT " LAKE," OHINEMUTU 

A MAORI MOTHER AND CHILD 

A MAORI LAUNDRY . 

WEAVING A FLAX MAT 

HONGI, A MAORI GREETING 

A POI DANCE . 

A FIGURE OF THE POI DANCE 

ANOTHER FIGURE OF THE POI DANCE 

A HAKA ..... 

A FIGURE IN THE HAKA . 

ANOTHER FIGURE IN THE HAKA 

EXAMPLE OF MAORI WOOD-CARVING 

PANORAMA OF HANMER PLAINS. 

A BATH-HOUSE, HANMER . 

QUEEN MARY's HOSPITAL, HANMER 

MUD VOLCANO, WAI-O-TAPU 

THE " devil's bridge," WAI-0-TAPU 

THE " ECHO LAKE," WAI-O-TAPU 

NATURAL WARM SWIMMING-BATH, WAIRAKEI 

THE WARM SWIMMING-BATH, WAIRAKEI 

THE " GREAT GEYSER," WAIRAKEI . 

THE " dragon's MOUTH " GEYSER, WAIRAKEI 



page 62 
64 

64 
64 
64 
64 
64 
64 
64 
64 
64 
64 

64 
64 
64 
64 

93 
96 

96 

100 
100 
100 



103 



103 
103 
103 



XIV 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



FIG. 



facing page io_; 



pagi 



C7. OUTFLOW FROM THE GREAT GEYSER 
^)8. KERAPITI BLOW-HOLE 

69. THE HUKA FALLS . 

70. ARATLVTL\ RAPIDS . 

71. THE "twins" geyser, WAIRAKEI 

72. MOUTH OF THE " TWINS " GEYSER 

73. " eagle's NEST " GEYSER W MRAKEI 

74. " crow's NEST " t.LVSLK. TAUPO 

75. A BOILING SPRING, TAUPO 

76. THE DINING-HALL, THE SPA, TAUPO 

77. THE BATHS, TE AROHA . 

78. THE BOWLING GREEN, TE AROHA 

79. A GROVE OF NIKAU PALM AT MORERE 

80. THE BATH-HOUSE, MORERE 

81. LIMESTONE ROCKS, KAMO 

82. THE HANDS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS 

83. X-RAY OF HAND IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS 

84. SPUR FROM THE OS CALCIS 

' • If • • 

85. DIAGRAM OF X-RAY PICTURES 

• >• ft 

86. TOPHACEOUS MASSES IN THE HAND OF A MAORI page 



lacing page 

■ page 
facing page 



• page 
facing page 



10 



103 



103 



104 

105 
106 

106 

107 

107 

III 

112 

126 

127 

130 

140 

140 

140 

141 

146 



PART I 
DESCRIPTIVE 




< 
p 

D 



< 



< 






CHAPTER I 

ROUTES AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

Comparison with the British Isles. — New Zealand has been 
termed the " Britain of the South." The description for 
once in a way is really apt, for while, as a general rule, one is 
prone, and justly prone, to mistrust the facile labels which 
are nowadays so freely distributed, in this case the name 
is fully justified. 

Of course, in dealing with the southern hemisphere, there 
is a necessary inversion of northern ideas and terms ; the 
South is cold and the North is hot, and Christmas falls at 
midsummer. Allowing, however, for this inversion, it is 
curious how closely parallel are these two Britains of the 
North and South. 

Lying in the Southern Ocean, almost exactly antipodean 
to Britain, New Zealand also consists of two main islands, 
though in this case they lie end to end and north and south, 
instead of side by side and east and west. • 

The Scotch mountains of the north are represented, and 
eclipsed, by the Southern Alps ; the lochs of the western 
highlands have their counterpart, though on a grander scale, 
in the fiords and sounds of the South Island ; and the southern 
extremity of the country is very largely Scotch. The cold 
north-east wind of Britain is, for much of New Zealand, 
represented by the south-west, and the north-east wind 
brings rain and warmth. 

It is of course easy to pursue analogy farther than is 
profitable. Every country and every community has 
special individualities which mark it out as a thing apart, 
and without such characteristics the world would be robbed 

3 



4 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NE\\' ZEALAND 

of half its charm. It is the pride of New Zealand that, while 
she is, of all the daughter nations, the one most nearly like 
the mother country, she is yet most unmistakably stamped 
with her own individuality, is a young, vigorous, and original 
nation and no mere copy. 

Climate.' — Although lying much nearer to the equator, 
roughly between lat. 34° and 47° S., than do the British 
Isles, which lie between lat. 50° and 59° N., the climate of 
the two countries is by no means so dissimilar as these 
figures would indicate. For while Britain is warmed by the 
Gulf Stream, New Zealand is kept more temperate by the 
enormous surrounding areas of the southern oceans. Thus 
New Zealand corresponds in latitude to Italy in the northern 
hemisphere (vide fig. 2) ; but to get an approximately equal 
climate, one would have to imagine Italy an island shifted, 
say, five hundred miles north-west of the coast of Portugal. 
As compared with the British Isles there is in New Zealand 
more sunshine, and warmer sunshine ; less mist and fog, 
and fewer grey days ; a slightly heavier rainfall, with fewer 
rainy days ; perhaps, if anything, rather more wind. There 
is, however, much less contrast between summer and winter. 
The summer climate of New Zealand is somewhat warmer, 
and in this there is much less difference between the North 
and South Islands than might be anticipated, while the winter 
climate is, except on the inland highlands of the South 
Island, distinctly milder than that of the south of England. 
In a word, the climate is more equable, more sunny, and 
somewhat warmer. 

It is the climate of England at its best, " only a little 
more so." 

The contrast of the changing seasons is also minimized 
by the character of the vegetation. With few exceptions 
the native trees and shrubs are evergreen, and it is only 
in those increasing areas planted with deciduous European 

1 For a fuller and more technical account of the climate the reader 
is referred to pages 211-221, which have been kindly contributed by the 
Government Meteorologist, the Rev. D. L. Bates. 







BERLIN 



-.. iSt^cart I 



'^c,-: 






VIE.NNA 



TRIA 



,<^„ 



CcQoa 



CHRI^-j; 




>\^' 



=^>'' 



:hurc 



"""^o, 



'^euii 



i*\^^ 



^ao 



V; 



M £ 



A^K Cap* 






-k »^i; 



>. ?*'•>! 





-Wana f . Chtmer 



-Scale of English miles: ■"''I 

O 60 lOO 200 300 400 S90 



Fig. 2.— map SHOWING NEW ZEALAND AS IT WOULD BE SITUATED IF 
PLACED IN CORRESPONDING LATITUDE OF NORTHERN HEMISPHERE, 
BUT WITH EAST, INSTEAD OF WEST, LONGITUDE. 



ROUTES AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION 7 

trees that the bare boughs bring home to one the fact of 
winter. 

In the matter of elevation the principal spas are for- 
tunately placed, and allow a good deal of choice. Thus, 
in the North Island, Te Aroha, Waiwera, Helensville, and 
several others are at or near the sea-level ; the " thermal 
district," including Rotorua, Wairakei, and Taupo, is on 
an elevated inland plateau a thousand feet or so above 
sea-level ; Hanmer, in the South Island, is somewhat 
higher, and in bracing mountainous country. 

As purely mountainous resorts there are " The Hermitage " 
at Mount Cook, at an altitude of 2.500 feet, with easy access 
to mountain huts higher up, and an accommodation house 
high up on Mount Egmont, near New Plymouth. 

Bracing resorts at medium altitude are Queenstown, on 
Lake Wakatipu, and the small towns on the upland plateau 
of Central Otago. 

Ocean Routes. — It must be confessed that New Zealand 
hes " a long way from anywhere." From Australia it means 
about four days' passage from Sydney to Auckland or from 
Melbourne to Wellington, while from England it means a 
minimum of from four to six weeks, whatever route be taken. 

While, however, this great distance presents many draw- 
backs, especially to the tourist with limited time at his 
disposal, to the invalid not too hampered by such con- 
siderations the long voyage is, in many cases, a distinct 
advantage. 

Thus in cases of chronic disease — and it is of course for 
chronic diseases that spa treatment is especially indicated — 
the prolonged enforced rest, the abundant fresh air and 
sunshine, and the novel surroundings of an ocean voyage 
are very material aids to recuperation, and form an excellent 
preliminary to a course at a spa and an equally excellent 
" after cure." 

There is also considerable choice of routes, so that a 
traveller need not be bored by retracing his steps on his 
homeward journey. Again, a route can be chosen to suit 



8 THE PIOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

the special needs of an invalid. Thus, if it be desirable 
that he should get plenty of change of scene and interest, 
he should be sent via the Mediterranean, calling at French 
and Itahan ports, the Suez Canal, Colombo, and Austraha. 
In Australia he wiU probably get a day or two at Perth, 
Adelaide, and Melbourne, before disembarking at Sydney 
for Auckland. He can return by an alternative route via 
Vancouver and across Canada, or by the Panama Canal. 
Should the Suez route be chosen, care should be taken, in 
the case of delicate patients, to avoid the summer months 
in the Red Sea ; but as, under ordinary conditions, he would 
be leaving England in autumn to catch the New Zealand 
summer, any excessive heat is not likely to be encountered 
there, and it is not until he gets to Ceylon that he encounters 
much in the way of tropical conditions. Australia will, 
of course, be reached in the early summer, but if he times 
liis journey to arrive about November he will probably 
find the climate delightful. 

Should, on the other hand, it be desirable to rest the 
patient as much as possible, to avoid the fatigue and excite- 
ments of landing at ports, and to avoid prolonged heat, 
he should be sent via the Cape. By this route he will 
probably touch at Teneriffe, Cape Town, and Hobart, 
and on his return journey can go round Cape Horn, only 
calling at a South American port ; and the passage through 
the tropics, both in going out and coming home, will be 
comparatively short. 

The choice of routes will depend, then, partly on climatic 
requirements and partly on the idiosyncrasy of the patient. 
If he is liable to be bored by the monotony of a long sea 
voyage and few ports, he had better avoid the Cape route, 
and perhaps Panama. 

Clothing. — The invalid, by leaving England in the autumn, 
will be getting three summers running, and he will necessarily 
spend several weeks under tropical conditions. A tropical 
outfit for board- ship will therefore certainly be needed, but 
he will be well advised to wear very thin white flannel 



C.Maria Van Diemen\ 



i North C. 



NORTH ISLAND^ 



« i\ Great Barrier I, 



East C. 




SOUTH 
ISLAND 



MAP SHOWING 
HOT SPRINGS AREA 



till 1 1 1 1 1 II 



Railways 

Tourist Coach Roads 

Thermal District y//////7/m^/V//fy/, 

Places with Hot Springs underlined 



Tic. ,.— MAP OF NORTH ISLAND, SHOWING THERMAL DISTRICT AND MAIN 

HOT SPRINGS CENTRES. 



ROUTES AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION 11 

rather than white duck. In New Zealand he will find that 
what suited him for an English summer will suit him for a 
New Zealand one. Visitors from Australia need hardly 
be reminded how much cooler the New Zealand summer is 
than their own. 

Access on Landing. — A glance at the accompanying map 
(fig. 3) will show that the spas of New Zealand are, with the 
exception of Hanmer, confined to the North Island. While 
there are numerous places marked as mineral springs, and 
still more numerous springs unnamed, the average overseas 
invalid will probably be making either for Rotorua or 
Te Aroha, while the tourist will surely find himself sooner or 
later in the Thermal District. 

In the vast majority of cases travellers will be disembarked 
at either Auckland or Wellington. The journey from Auck- 
land to Rotorua is only 170 miles by train, while from 
Wellington it means a long and tedious journey. There is, 
however, a sleeping-car on the train. Te Aroha is reached 
by a branch from the Rotorua line. 

Thermal District. — The thermal district covers a very 
extensive area (vide map 3.^). Its limits are of course some- 
what difficult to define, and indeed there are large numbers 
of hot springs far outside its uttermost boundaries, but as 
a matter of convenience it is held to include the zone of 
volcanic springs ranging from the central volcanoes south of 
Taupo in a northerly and north-easterly direction to White 
Island and Whale Island in the Bay of Plenty. The main 
geographical features of this district are that it is an elevated 
pumice plateau, 1,000 to 1,500 feet above sea-level, dotted 
with numerous large lakes and with isolated extinct vol- 
canic cones, and culminating in the very centre of the 
North Island in a group of active, extinct, and semi-extinct 
volcanoes. Of these mountains, snow-clad Ruapehu (9,175 
feet), a volcano extinct but for its hot springs, is the highest 
point in the island and dominates its sister mountains 
Ngauruhoe (7,515 feet), a still active volcano, and Tongariro 
(6,400 feet). 



12 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

At their feet lies Taupo Moana/ a lake some twenty miles 
or more in length and nearly as much in breadth. This 
lake, largely fed by the melting snows of the mountains, 
overflows by the great Waikato River to the sea, and on its 
shores, at Tokaanu and Taupo, and on those of the upper 
reaches of the river and its tributaries, as at Wairakei, 
Wai-o-tapu, and Orakei Korako, may be found innumerable 
boiling springs, fumaroles, mud volcanoes, and other 
evidences of hydrothermal activity. 

Towards the northern edge of the plateau, and beyond the 
watershed of the Waikato, will be noticed a chain of numerous 
lakes, Rotorua,- Roto-iti, Roto-ehu, Roto-ma, Tarawera, 
Roto-mahana, and many others, grouped around numerous 
extinct volcanic peaks, while the two last named are at 
the foot of Tarawera Mountain, which, while now quiescent, 
was in active eruption in 1886. 

Here we find, in addition to numerous isolated springs, 
two main groups of hot springs, one centred at Rotorua 
and the other at Rotomahana, and reaching its climax there 
at the great Waimangu geyser. 

The whole of this district is the happy hunting-ground 
of tourists in quest of wondrous thermal " sights " and of 
sport, or of invalids in search of health. For both, the 
centre of the district is Rotorua, for here the railway ends, 
and here are, besides geysers and hydrothermal sights, 
baths and all the resources of a modern spa. From here 
starts the main line of tourist traffic to Waimangu, Wai-o- 
tapu, Wairakei, and Taupo, and the overland route thence 
to the Wanganui River on the main trunk line. 

1 Moana — the sea, ocean, — pron. mo-ahna. 

2 Roto — lake. 




Ftg. 3a.— map of THER>L\L DISTRICT, SHOWING MAIN TOURIST ROUTES. 



13 



CHAPTER II 

HYDROTHERMAL PHENOMENA 

No one visiting the " Thermal District " of New Zealand 
can fail to be impressed by the magnitude and variety of 
the hydrothermal phenomena. On every side one sees hot 
springs of every size, shape, temperature, and colour. Here 
a spring is blue and boiling furiously, there a comparatively 
placid pool may be bright green or perchance a mustard 
yellow. 

Closer investigation will show as great variations of 
chemical composition, not only in waters of obviously 
different appearance, but in waters apparently identical. 
The most casual tourist is interested in the question — 
" why ? " much more so the invalid, who is looking to these 
same waters to rid him of his malady ; and it is felt that a 
chapter dealing with these phenomena, and, as far as possible, 
explaining them, can hardly fail to be of general interest. 

There are certain phases of the question which can only 
be explained tentatively, and certain subtle differences of 
working and appearance which we can hardly explain at 
all; but on the whole, all the major phenomena can be 
elucidated on general geological principles, after careful 
investigation of local conditions. 

Fumarole the prototype of all hydrothermal activity. — 
It will be the purpose of the following pages to attempt 
to explain how all the protean hydrothermal activities of 
the district are but children of the parent fumarole or 
" blow-hole," and that hot springs, geysers, boiling mud 
springs, silica terraces, and probably even volcanoes, all 

15 



16 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

have as their primary agent a jet of steam blown out of 
the earth's hot interior. 

To obtain a clear idea of hydrothermal phenomena it 
is necessary to consider briefly a few elementary facts in 
geology ; and as all the hot springs of the district are of 
volcanic origin, it will repay us to digress for a time and 
consider in some detail the structure and modus operandi 
of a volcano. If some of the statements made here may 
seem somewhat elementary or somewhat dogmatic, it must 
be remembered that this book is written essentially for the 
lay reader and not for the geologist. 

We must conceive, then, the earth as being composed of 
a white-hot mass, whose exterior has cooled to a relatively 
thin, hard crust, and whose interior, the magma, so far from 
being a molten liquid, is maintained in a solid condition 
by enormous pressure. It is possible, and even probable, 
that much of this central mass may consist of superheated 
gas, but so modified by pressure that it has the physical 
consistency of a solid. 

Somewhere in this hot mass has been heated the water 
which is the basis of our hot springs and geysers, and which 
is by most geologists conceived to be the basis of all volcanic 
action.' There are two rival theories as to the origin of 
this water : it may have come in recent times by percolation 
from the surface, from leakv river, lake, and ocean beds, 
and from rain penetrating the soil, or it may have arisen 
from primeval water imprisoned in the magTna through 
the ages. In the former case it is assumed that it 
only penetrated the hot crust, that it was heated by 

^Brun {Recherches sur I'exhalaison volcanique) would rather appear to 
have upset the orthodox theory by his researches. He showed that when 
" active " unoxidized volcanic rocks are heated to a certain temperature, 
gas and volatile salts are given off with explosive violence (i kilo of 
Krakatoa obsidian yielding 1,577 <^C- of gas at 800° C). and to this action 
he attributes volcanic outbursts and the formation of pumice. He points 
out that water vapour is largely dissipated at 150° C. and wholly so at 
300° C. While he asserts that volcanic explosive eruptions are anhydrous, 
he maintains that solfatara and fumaroles owe their aqueous character 
to the invasion of partially cooled volcanic rocks by superficial waters. 



HYDROTHERMAL PHENOMENA 17 

the rocks and probably never reached the white-hot 
interior. 

It might be thought that the enormous pressure of rising 
gases and steam would preclude the passage of water beyond 
a limited depth, but it has been shown pretty conclusively 
that water can penetrate rocks by capillary attraction against 
the most enormous forces of heat and pressure. 

In favour of this theory of origin is the fact that volcanoes 
are almost invariably found near the sea or a large lake, 
and again, in New Zealand at any rate, the hot springs 
and geysers are almost always close to a river or lake bed, 
or the sea-shore. 

The other theory, that of the primeval "original" 
water imprisoned in the magma, has at least as many sup- 
porters and makes a powerful appeal to the imagination. 

According to this theory, before the formation of the 
earth's crust it was surrounded by a dense atmosphere of 
steam and gases, the former representing the present waters 
before their condensation. Much of this steam was ab- 
sorbed by the molten magma, and has escaped slowly ever 
since. In what form it is imprisoned is perhaps a matter 
for conjecture. Under increased pressure of course the 
boiling-point of water rises, but the process does not go on 
indefinitely. The critical temperature of water is 773° F., 
and as the temperature of the magma near the surface is 
about 1,500° F., and is much more at greater depths, such 
imprisoned water vapour must be white-hot, and probably 
exists in a state of " dissociation," and we can only term it 
indefinitely " water substance." A substance that by reason 
of pressure and temperature is a white-hot solidified poten- 
tially explosive gas is hard to reconcile with our ideas of 
water ! 

It is, at any rate, potentially water, though temporaril}^ 
dissociated into its elements, and, on its reconstitution, 
it is easy to realize that its solvent and chemical properties 
may be something vastly different from those of the water 
with which we are familiar ; and it is in some quarters 
2 



18 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

suggested that volcanic mineral waters owe part of their 
eihcacy to their origin from " virgin waters " of this type. 

As a proof that water is present in abundance in the 
magma there is the fact that clouds of steam arise from 
ejected lava, both when fresh and long after its eruption. 
This is corroborated by the crystalline and vesicular structure 
of plutonic rocks, caused by imprisoned water, and by the 
fact that water can be extracted from such rocks when crushed 
and heated in vacuo. Finally, the unchanging constitution 
of the mineral waters, arising in such enormous quantities 
over such great periods of time, would suggest a vast 
reservoir such as the deep magma rather than a more local 
and superficial origin. 

Whichever theory be correct is a matter for us of academic 
interest only ; our task is to trace the passage of the steam 
to the earth's surface. 

(i) It may escape as a steam-jet, " blow-hole," or 
fumarole. 

(2) The fumarole may condense below the surface into 
boiling water and issue as a hot spring or geyser. 

(3) Or the fumarole may be on so tremendous a scale that 
it issues as a volcano. 

Owing to shrinkage from cooling and from other causes, 
the surface of the earth is undergoing folding and crumpling 
movements ; the lines of folding represent lines of weakness, 
though it would be exaggeration to call them " cracks." 
Along these lines the pressure on the underl^dng mass is 
lessened, thereby allowing the solid magma to become more 
fluid, and also reducing the pressure on the water-substance 
imprisoned in its mass. With explosive force this finds 
its vent as superheated steam at some weak spot in the crust, 
with or without the accompaniment of white-hot lava. 

Such a vent constitutes a volcano, and a glance at the 
map of the world shows that the majority of volcanoes 
tend to form in more or less definite lines near the sea, 
such as the curved line from the Antarctic through New 
Zealand, the East Indian Archipelago, and Japan, to Behring 



HYDROTHERMAL PHENOMENA 



19 



Straits, or that along the west coast of North and Soutli 
America. Both the linear arrangement of the volcanoes 
and the margin of the depressed ocean area would appear 
to be connected with the lines of weakness. 

The lava, then, the overflow of magma, is forced up 
from below, partly by being squeezed out, as we w^ould 
squeeze paint from a tube, but largely by.the explosive force 
of its imprisoned steam. It is as truly an effervescence 
then as an open bottle of champagne. 




Fig. 4.— DI.A.GRAMMATIC SECTION OF A VOLCANO. 
C. Crater. D. Dyke. P. Pipe. S.C. Secondary Cone. S. Sill. 



As it outflows it builds a cone, with a central pipe and 
a crater, exactly as we see in the Rotorua district mud 
volcanoes built up by steam forcing its way through clay 
in hot mud springs and " porridge-pots " (cf. fig. 29, p. 48). 

As the volcano rises in height, the lava still brims over 
its crater lip, and, together with showers of detritus, flows 
down over its sides, building it yet higher and thicker in 
a more or less perfect cone. As the cone is built higher, 
there is an ever-increasing tendency for the tube to get 
blocked up, and lava may force its way through a weak spot 



20 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

in its side and form a secondary cone and crater. Such an 
event is favoured by the fact that the cone is usually com- 
posite in character and arranged in layers (vide fig. 4). 
Such an arrangement of multiple cones is exceedingly common 
and constitutes a very familiar silhouette amongst the hills 
of New Zealand. 

We shall see later how closely analogous arc the volcano 
and the geyser ; indeed, the latter is merely a milder ex- 
pression of the former, and both are due to practically the 
same cause, superheated water. Both, again, behave in 
similar fashion under similar conditions, and both tend to 
ultimate extinction by erecting over themselves, as it were, 
their own tombstones. 

Thus, if the mouth of a volcano be very wide and the 
lava fairly liquid, it becomes a comparatively tranquil pool 
of boiling lava, while, if the mouth of a geyser be wide, it 
becomes a boiling spring, and, in the case of both, the 
continued deposit of fresh material round the mouth tends 
gradually to seal the exit. There is, indeed, in the Rotorua 
district one geyser which shows to perfection the inter- 
relation of the two phenomena, namely Waimangu (fig. 5). 
It is hard to know whether to class this as a geyser or as a 
volcano, for a geyser that has a mouth fifty yards across, and 
that shoots boiling water and great rocks a thousand feet 
into the air, is hardly distinguishable from a volcano ; it is 
truly a half-way house. 

We have seen that the magma contains imprisoned water 
vapour. 

If it flows out slowly it may emerge in treacl}' form as 
lava, a molten siliceous rock with varying proportions of 
alkalies and acids, but if, as usually happens, there are 
intermittent explosive bursts of steam the lava is shot into 
the air in small fragments. Under these conditions there is 
a sudden reduction of pressure in the ejected fragment, 
the imprisoned water and other gases suddenly expand, 
and, yeastlike, convert the stodgy mass into a spongy or 
bread-like substance, pumice. It is this pumice that covers 







■7 :^ O 



-r* I- ^ 






^i 

p ^ 



-5 ^ 

— "2 



o 







■3 5 



1 



X .J. 




HYDROTHERAIAL PHENOMENA 21 

for many miles the plains round Rotorua, and indeed the 
whole thermal district. 

From the crater, too, are shot fragments of rock, and clouds 
of rock smashed to powder — " ash " — together with gnarled 
and twisted blocks of comparatively solid lava in the form 
of " scoria," so familiar in the extinct craters of Auckland. 

The alternations of bursts of these varying materials 
generally cause a stratification of the volcanic cone, and 
" sills " of lava are apt to thrust themselves through weak 
spots between the layers, and may reach the surface, and, 
discharging from the side or base of a cone, form secondary 
cones as already noted. 

Gases emitted from Volcanoes. — In addition to lava and 
steam, various gases are evolved by a volcano, such as sulphur 
dioxide, sulphuretted hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, carbonic 
acid, hydrogen, and certain radio-active gases. It has been 
generally laid down that at no time do actual flames shoot 
up from a crater, but that the glare of the glowing lava, 
reflected on the superincumbent cloud of steam, gives a 
false impression of flame. This is not the whole truth, how- 
ever, for hydrogen and other inflammable gases do actually 
burst into flame, and the flames have even been examined 
spectroscopically.i These same gases, it will be observed, 
are also found in connexion with volcanic hot springs. 

Solfataras. — In course of time, which may be many 
thousands of years, or may be comparatively short, the 
violence of volcanic energy dies down, lava ceases to flow, 
and the only sign of activity is the emission of volatile 
vapours, the " solfatara " stage. It is in this stage of dying 
activity that thermal springs are most likely to be found 
in the vicinity, and they may continue to flow for untold 
ages after the solfatara stage has died down and the volcano 
is apparently extinct. We must add the cautious word 
" apparently," for mankind has occasionally learnt to its 
cost that a supposedly extinct volcano may reawaken. 

1 By Janssen. vide Geikie. 



22 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Gases emitted by Solfataras, Fumaroles, and Hot Springs.— 

The principal gases with which we are concerned are 
sulphuretted hydrogen and sulphur dioxide. The chemical 
combination of these two causes the deposition of sulphur 
in crystals, which may show either as a fine glistening yellow 
powder painting the sinter orifice of a fumarole or geyser, 
or, in fumaroles particularly rich in sulphurous acid, may 
be deposited in masses of astounding bulk and beauty. 
2H2S -I SO2 = 2H2O + 3S 
Percolating through the extensive beds of pumice on the 
shores of Lake Rotorua in the neighbourhood of the Post- 
master bath, the gases deposit sulphur in large quantities 
in and around the pumice fragments, constituting a sulphur 
mine which is exploited commercially.' 

The most beautiful example of sulphur crystallization 
that I have ever seen was exposed when we lifted for repair 
the floor of the sulphur vapour bath at Rotorua. The under- 
surface of the boards was covered with glistening yellow 
spikes, from half an inch to one inch long, and thickly 
projecting from these were flower-like hollow cups, perhaps 
half an inch across and two inches long, fragile and dainty, 
sparkling with crystals and with moisture, and irresistibly 
suggesting in form and colour the Miltonian daffodils that 
" fill their cups with dew." 

I had a less pleasing illustration of the chemical action 
that goes on when these gases meet in the presence of air 
and moisture. With the intention of making an inhala- 
torium, the steam from a geyser was led into pipes, and 
thence into a specially fitted-up vapour room. The fumes 
at the geyser end were comparatively bland, being mainly 
steam with a certain amount of sulphuretted hydrogen, 
but at their destination oxidation had taken place, and an 
irrespirable mixture of sulphuretted hydrogen, sulphurous 
acid, and pure sulphur ruined my well-meant efforts. 
Radio-active Gases. — So far only a limited examination 

1 The oxidation of sulphuretted hydrogen by air in the presence of 
water also causes the deposition of sulphur. 2H2S 4- O2 = 2H2O -\- S2. 



HYDROTHERMAL PHENOMENA 23 

has been made of the radio-activity of the gases emitted 
from the mineral springs in New Zealand. Those examined 
by Dr. Maclaurin in 191 1 show, of course, that the gases 
display a higher degree of activity than the waters from which 
they arise ; but, as might be expected, the radio-activity 
of hot mineral waters is low, lower than that of the cold 
springs of the district. Nor has the presence of the rarer 
gases such as argon, neon, etc., been investigated. 

Fumaroles. — Steam jets may arise not only from the 
immediate neighbourhood of a volcano, but at places con- 
siderably distant. Such steam- jets, or fumaroles, are very 
plentiful throughout the thermal district, especially at such 
places as Rotorua, Taupo, Wairakei, and Waimangu. The 
steam may issue from a hole in a rock with one unceasing 
roaring violence, reminding one very forcibly of a great 
ship " blowing off steam " (fig. 68), or it may bubble up 
through a layer of decomposed tuff to form a " porridge- 
pot " (fig. 31), or a mud volcano (fig. 28). 

Explosion Craters and Lakes. — Again, instead of forming 
a volcanic cone, an outburst of energy may cause a lake, and 
there are large numbers of these so formed in the Rotorua 
area. When the steam is pent up by an overlying layer of 
tough rock, it may go on accumulating its energy until, in 
one terrific explosion, it bursts its bonds, hurls the restraining 
rocks away in scattered fragments, and forms an explosion 
crater. As activity dies down, the great void gradually 
fills with water, sometimes pure, sometimes highly mineral- 
ized, until finally a peaceful and beautiful lake alone remains 
to mark the grave of the extinct monster. Rotomahana in 
its present form was largely formed in this way. 

Other lakes, such for instance, probably, as Rotorua, 
were formed by the subsidence of the surface after the 
withdrawal of immense quantities of underground material 
by neighbouring volcanoes, or by the blocking of river beds by 
the material ejected. That vast subsidences may occur may 
be imagined when it is considered that the single eruption 
of Tarawera is calculated to have ejected a cubic mile of ash. 



CHAPTER III 

HOT SPRINGS 

The hot springs arise in groups in more or less defined 
areas, generally in valleys, alongside rivers, or around lake 
rtiargins, but scattered individual springs may be met with in 
the most unlikely places, and hot springs, and more especially 
fumaroles, may arise on outwardly peaceful-looking mountain- 
sides. 

The springs vary in temperature from lukewarm to 
boiling, from acid to alkaline, from green to blue, but from 
a passing glance at a spring it is possible to deduce with 
some accuracy its general chemical composition. 

In the first place it will be found that nearly all boiling 
springs in this district are alkaline in reaction, or at least 
neutral, while the acid springs never approach the boiling 
point. Indeed, it is rare to find a permanently acid water 
at a higher temperature than i6o° ¥} Where a boiling 
spring gives an acid reaction to litmus it will nearly always 
be found that the acidity is due to carbonic acid, and the 
red litmus paper, as it dries, and the carbonic acid gas is 
lost, returns to blue. 

Again, the boiling springs are almost invariably slightly 
bluish in tinge. In small quantities the water is colourless ; 
in bulk, as in a deep pool, it is of a clear, distinctive, and 
most beautiful blue, due to silicates. 

A similar colour may be observed in the deep fresh-water 

1 There are, however, exceptions, such as on White Island and the 
Sulphur Terrace spring at Wai-o-tapu. The rule holds good, however, 
for the Rotorua district. 

24 



HOT SPRINGS 25 

springs and underground rivers that well up so plentifully 
in the district, and in some lakes, such as Tiki-tapu.^ 

The acid waters, on the other hand, unless discoloured by 
precipitated sulphur or muddy with decomposed tuff, are 
generally greenish in tone, the colour varying from the faint 
yellow tinge of sulphur to the most brilliant and vivid 
emerald of sulphate of iron. Such waters ooze out of the 
subsoil, and are never ejected with force as are many of the 
alkaline springs. 

We will consider now the origin of the waters and of their 
constituents, also why some springs are boiling and some 
merely hot, why the boiling springs are alkaline and the 
acid springs are never boiling, and incidentally more particu- 
larly examine, what is perhaps the most dramatic phenomenon 
of the district, geyser action. 

Origin of the Waters. — It is not suggested for one moment 
that all hot mineral waters have the same kind of origin. 
In some the heat may be due to chemical action, some 
may be volcanic ; but we are dealing with the waters of the 
Thermal District only, which are almost entirely volcanic. 

We have to consider the source of the water, of its heat, 
and of its constituents. 

The source of the water is, as we have seen, in some 
degree a matter of dispute. It may be due to the percolation 
of surface water through the superficial rocks to hot under- 
lying strata, or it may be due to springs arising, as it were, 
de novo, from the primaeval water imprisoned in the central 
magma. - 

The heat of course is derived from contact with the 



1 Very minute quantities of silica suspended in colloid form would give 
this colour by reflected light. The greenish tinge of Rotokakahi is prob- 
ably due to small quantities of sulphur suspended in colloidal form, and 
the lake is becoming less green as the sulphur is deposited from suspension. 
Recent experiments by Mr. Woodmansey at Harrogate show that HoS does 
not decompose, with deposition of sulphur, when dissolved in distilled 
water and exposed to air, but does so when salts are present in the water, 
e.g. tap water. 

^ Cf. footnote, p. i6. 



26 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

earth's heated interior, and in the majority of cases the 
temperature of the water diminishes progressively in its 
passage from the interior to the surface. In some cases, 
however, the water takes so tortuous a path to the surface 
that its cooHng process has already progressed considerably, 
and it is conceivable that it may occasionally be reheated 
by hot superficial rocks, by steam-jets,* or even, as in the 
sulphuric acid waters, by chemical action before it emerges 
on the surface. Thus it will be shown that, in the case of the 
" Priest " springs, it is probable that the originally alkaline 
water is more than neutralized by the foimation, quite 
near the surface, of sulphuric acid, and the mixture of this 
acid with water would most certainly mean a considerable 
evolution of heat. 

The Constituents of the Waters. — The original chemical 
composition of the waters will be due to their solvent action 
on surrounding heated material, but this composition may 
be modified profoundly by further chemical action during 
the long passage of the water from the interior to the 
surface. These secondary variations will be considered 
later when dealing with the individual waters, but the 
origin of the principal original constituents can be ex- 
amined here. 

We have already seen that practically all the waters of 
the geysers and multitudinous boiling springs are alkaline ; 
this alkalinity is due to the presence with the silicates of 
sodium carbonate, the other essential ingredients being 
sodium chloride and sodium sulphide always, sodium 
borate frequently, and, without exception, variable quan- 
tities of sulphuretted hydrogen. Of all these ingredients 
perhaps the silicates and the sulphides are the most char- 
acteristic. 

Silicates. — Silicon ranks next to oxygen as the second 
most abundant of the elements constituting the earth's 
crust, of which it forms more than 25 per cent. It is also — 
and this is a matter which is apt to be overlooked— a most 

1 Cf. p. 38, " geysers." 



HOT SPRINGS 27 

important constituent of our bodies.^ Seeing that silicon 
is so abundant in nature, and so widely distributed, the 
wonder is, not that it is present in volcanic waters, but that 
it is not found universally abundant in other waters. The 
reason is that siliceous rocks at ordinary temperatures are 
peculiarly resistant to the action of water,- while, on the 
other hand, at very high temperatures they are quite readily 
soluble.' In the Rotorua springs silicon exists chiefly in 
the form of sodium silicate, but it may also be found com- 
bined in varying degree in different springs with other bases 
and metals. 

Silicate-laden superheated steam approaches the surface 
of the earth as a fumarole, or may be condensed as a boiling 
spring. In either case as it nears the surface it loses in 
temperature, and tends to drop a large portion of its siliceous 
burden. Still, on arrival at the surface it is heavily im- 
pregnated with silicates, and on exposure to the air, and 
consequent rapid cooling, a further large deposit takes place, 
and we get round the mouths and funnels of blow-holes, 
geysers, and hot springs those silica deposits (sinter or 

1 As silicic acid is an integral constituent of connective tissue, the total 
amount required by the organism is very considerable, the proportion 
being greater in young children than in adults, thus : muscle contains 
24 milligrammes per kilo of dried tissue ; skin, 45 ; tendon, 64 ; dura 
mater, 87 ; fascia, 106. See also the experiments of the New Zealand 
Agricultural Department in feeding young lambs on sodium silicate. 

- Spring water from siliceous rocks is very markedly free from dissolved 
mineral substances. For this reason the water supply of Rotorua is one 
of quite exceptional purity'. 

3 The most refractory silicates are easily dissolved by superheated 
water. Thus glass is soluble in water at 410° F. If we assume that mineral 
water is a " virgin water," derived from the magma, it must have been 
in contact, in the form of gas under enormous pressure and at a temperature 
of at least 1,000^ to 2,000° F., with highly siliceous material. Geikie 
(textbook of Geology) points out that water at ordinary temperatures 
is a very weak base or acid, and can only to an imperceptible degree 
abstract silicic acid from soluble silicates. " At about 300° C. water and 
silicic acid are of about equal strength, at 2,000° C. water is about 300 times 
stronger than the acid, and will act as a powerful acid. By its action the 
silicates are split up into free silicic acid and bases, which by combination 
with unchanged magma change into acid and basic silicates." 



28 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

geyserite) which are such a prominent feature of the district. 
The natural deposition of siUca by evaporation is aided by 
several extraneous agencies such as living algae and dead 
vegetation (cf. fig. 26). 

Sulphides. — The most characteristic feature of the springs 
of the Thermal District is the universal rotten-egg smell 
of sulphuretted hydrogen. In some of the springs and 
fumaroles this gas is evolved very freely, in a few springs 
it is barely perceptible, but even in these latter it becomes 
more noticeable if the water is collected and allowed to get 
stale. The reason of this latter phenomenon is that there 
is always a certain amount of sodium sulphide in solution, 
and on exposure to the air this readily decomposes, with 
the evolution of the more volatile hydrogen sulphide ; 
further oxidation of this gas causes the formation of sulphuric 
acid and the deposition of pure sulphur. 

Sodium chloride, besides being a universally distributed 
salt, is found abundantly in volcanic cones and lavas ; it 
would therefore naturally figure prominently in the analyses 
of volcanic mineral waters. 

Sodium borate is another common product of the volcano, 
and is not uncommonly found in volcanic springs ; indeed, 
in Tuscany, the recovery of boracic acid from the waters 
constitutes a thriving industry. In New Zealand borates 
have been found in several springs, notably at Taupo and 
at Hanmer. 

Sodium bicarbonate is present in varying amount in all 
the boiling springs. Therapeutically its importance is 
obvious, geologically it is important as it enables water 
to dissolve silica and decompose silicates. It is one of 
the products of the decomposition of sodium sulphide in 
the presence of atmospheric carbonic acid. 

Alkaline Waters. — We have seen that the " deep " springs — 
that is, the geysers and nearly all springs at or about the 
boiling-point — derive their alkalinity from salts withdrawn 
from the magma and deep-lying rocks, supplemented by the 
decomposition of sodium sulphide : we will now pass to the 



HOT SPRINGS 29 

consideration of the permanently acid waters, examining 
both their contents and whence they derive their acidity, 
reserving for a separate chapter a detailed account of the 
geysers and other hydrothermal phenomena. 

Acid Waters. — Acid springs are by no means so numerous 
or so widely distributed as the alkaline ones, but they 
are found in conjunction with them in various areas of 
the Thermal District, notably at Rotorua, and reach their 
highest development in White Island, an isolated volcano in 
the Bay of Plenty. 

As has already been noted, a water may be temporarily 
acid from the presence of carbonic acid gas,i and many of 
the deep springs show this temporary acidity, or permanently 
acid from such acids as sulphuric or hydrochloric. It is 
these latter with which we are concerned here. 

The waters of White Island contain hydrochloric acid in 
very strong solution (3,000 to nearly 10.000 grains per 
gallon), and similar but weaker waters are found at Taupo. 
These waters have been permeated by fumes rising from 
volcanic vents in a state of fierce activity. 

The waters of Rotorua, of Taheke, and of Whale Island 
owe their acidity to sulphuric acid. It is probable that, 
in the main, sulphurous acid, evolved from a decadent 
solfatara and bubbling through the waters, is the immediate 
agent, but from some experiments that I conducted at 
Rotorua, it would seem at least possible that other agencies 
may also have been at work in the fashioning of the local 
waters. 

In contradistinction to the alkaline waters, which are 
apt to be ejected from the ground with some vigour, the 

1 Carbonic acid gas springs, generally chalybeate, are most abundant 
in limestone regions, and are the product of the chemical action of acids 
on the limestones. In volcanic districts, however, they may be due 
to the direct emanation of CO2 from volcanic vents, and represent a dying 
stage of solfataric activity. According to Sainte-Claire Deville, the 
vapours evolved in the most active stage of volcanic activity contain 
chlonne and fluorine ; in later stages, sulphurous gases ; in the dying- 
out stage, carbonic acid and hydrocarbons. 



30 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

acid waters of the Rotorua district, such as the Priest and 
Postmaster springs, ooze out of the pumice subsoil of the 
plains that border the lake. Their outcrop is always near 
the lake margin, and their flow is always very definitely 
from the higher surrounding basin into the lake. They rise 
and fall with the rise and fall of the lake level, and this at 
first sight would seem to suggest that they are fed with surface 
water. 

The following experiment, however, makes me incline to 
the opinion that they are metamorphosed alkaline waters 




CO 



^/ ^f//nTrr/777i7r7777rr7/// - 



UJ ■ V 



Ts 



AV^ 



NW 



TWT77///////////m'm/'///im7rp — c 

Fig. 7-DIAGRAM OF THE FORMATION OF SULPHURIC ACID MINERAL WATER. 



D. Deep spring of alkaline water. 

N.W. Neutral water. 

A.W. Acid water, in a stratum of 

marcasite-coated pumice. 
S. Silica lining. 
L. Leak. 



C. Clay stratum. 
SH. Shaft. 
P.S. Priest spring. 
L.L. Lake level. 

P. Beds of pumice lying above and 
between the clay strata. 



that have escaped from the deep springs into the subsoil, 
and have there been acidified in situ by local agencies. As 
a natural sequence, the nascent sulphuric acid which they 
contain has attacked certain minerals in the superficial 
strata and formed fresh chemical combinations, such as 
sulphates of iron and aluminium. 

A shallow shaft was sunk at a spot at which it was expected 
to find acid water. About ten feet down was struck an 
abundant supply of this water at a temperature of 140° F. 
A few feet lower was encountered a bed of white clay, 
forming a floor over which the hot water flowed. This was 



HOT SPRINGS 31 

pierced by a six-inch iron pipe, and after boring about 
eight feet, a mineral water was found of a temperature of 
i6o° F., and of neutral reaction (vide fig. 7). 

An analysis of the two waters showed that the superficial 
water was practically identical with the Priest spring, while 
the deep neutral water was closely alhed to that of the 
alkaline Rachel spring and the geysers, and appeared to be 
a partially altered "deep " water, an intermediate step 
between the two types. While contrasting so strongly 
in chemical composition, however, these two waters from 
the shaft had one point in common in that they contained 
precisely the same amount of silica, even to decimals. It 
can hardly be conceived, therefore, that unless they had 
originally one common source, they would have possessed 
this absolutely common factor. I beheve, therefore, that 
the acid springs represent alkaline waters that have escaped 
through faults in their channels into the subsoil, and, owing 
to peculiar local conditions, have there been made acid 
by oxidation. 

We will now examine these local conditions. 

In the first place, a deep pumice bed would seem an 
ideal oxidizing medium ; but as the pumice at the spring 
level is waterlogged, one could not expect much air to be 
imprisoned in its meshes. Being aware that marcasite 
(FeS) is one of the natural agents that oxidize sulphides into 
sulphates, I closely examined the stratum of pumice through 
which the hot water flowed, and found that much of it was 
blackened. Portions of this pumice sent for analysis re- 
vealed the fact that the black coloration was due to minute 
crystals of marcasite about y^o inch in diameter. 

Another local source of sulphuric acid is, I believe, the 
percolation of fumes of sulphur dioxide through the water 
as it runs in its pumice bed. 

We have now seen the genesis of an acid water from an 
alkaline : the presence of sulphates of iron and aluminium 
is explained by the subsequent action of sulphuric acid on 
clay and iron ore. 



32 TTTK HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

As to why the local acid waters are always considerably 
below the boiling-point, the question has already been 
answered in the preceding paragraphs. If we assume that 
the acid water is merely boiling alkaline water that has 
travelled through tortuous superficial channels of compara- 
tively cool pumice, we can easily understand that it must 
necessarily have parted with a good deal of its heat, and may 
even have become quite cold. The chemical action, however, 
of newly formed sulphuric acid on the water would heat 
it again considerably, but not to the boiling-point. 




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CHAPTER IV 

GEYSERS AND BOILING MUD SPRINGS 

The most dramatic phenomenon in the Thermal District, 
and midoubtedly the feature of most immediate interest 
to the casual visitor, is the geyser. There are in this district 
some half-dozen large, and quite a number of small, geysers 
to be seen in active operation, while the dry siliceous mouths, 
the skeletons, as it were, of extinct geysers, may be found by 
the score. 

There is something grand and elemental about a big 
geyser. The sudden fierce outburst of steam, the resistless 
hurling aloft of a great column of boiling water, the fierce 
roar as it bursts its bonds, the tremor of the hot rocks 
beneath one's feet, all combine to arouse a feeling akin 
to awe in the beholder. One almost forgets that this is a 
phenomenon of inanimate nature and feels rather in the 
presence of some monstrous, beautiful living thing rising 
terrible in its wrath. 

It is not until all is over, not until, in great sighing gasps, 
the monster has sunk back exhausted into its silica cave, 
that one is minded to question into the why and wherefore. 
But, man being what he is, it then becomes a matter of almost 
as great interest to probe into the means as to watch the 
result. 

The most salient features of a geyser are that boiling 
water is shot into the air, that the action is intermittent, 
and that in some cases the action is repeated with clock- 
work regularity. This regular intermission is not a necessary 
feature, and indeed is absent in the case of the Rotorua 
geysers, though present in some in the Taupo-Wairakei 
3 33 



34 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 



area ; and finally, some small geysers are almost continuous 
in their action. 

The generally accepted explanation of geyser action is 
based on the investigations of Bunsen and Descloiseaux, who 
recorded the temperatures at varying depths in the tube 
of the Great Geyser of Iceland. The explanation given 
here is a summary of the accepted view, but modified some- 
what by the per- 
sonal observation 
of the author. 

The only essen- 
tial mechanism in 
the formation of a 
geyser is a subter- 
ranean supply of 
either steam or 
water, heated to a 
point well above 
the surface boiling- 
point, and a tube 
or funnel com- 
municating more 
or less vertically 
with the surface 
and of a compara- 
tively small sec- 
tional area. 

Given sufficient 
water, of sufficient 
temperature, and a sufficiently long and narrow exit tube, 
it will be shown that geyser action is not only possible 
but inevitable. It was formerly thought that the inter- 
vention of a subterranean cavern was a necessary part of 
the mechanism, both to act as a reservoir for the water 
and to afford with its dome-like roof space for an elastic 
cushion of steam. We believe now that no cavern is 
necessary, though, as will be shown later, in the case of 




Fig. 9, a.— FUMAROLE OPENING ON A STEEPLY 

SLOPING SURF.\CE. 

This generally persists as a fumarole, but even on a cliff-face 

it may sometimes form a hot spring, as in fig. b. 



GEYSERS AND AIUD SPRINGS 



35 



one extinct geyser such a cavern is actually interposed. 
It will perhaps be easier to understand the mechanism of 
a geyser if we trace it back to its genesis — a fumarole. 

Fumarole. — Superheated water-substance,^ escaping from 
the white-hot magma, finds its way through some narrow 
passage in the solid crust. It is improbable that any actual 
open passage can exist in the lower depths, but that rather 
the heated gases per- 
colate through un- 
broken material. As 
the heated gas ap- 
proaches the surface, 
and the pressure on 
it, and also its tem- 
perature, diminish, a 
point is reached at 
which the formation 
of steam is possible. 
This superheated 
steam will cool gradu- 
ally as it passes by 
tortuous crevices to 
the open air, where it 
finally emerges as a 
fumarole or blow-hole. 
Should now the sur- 
face of the ground be 
sloping, the condensed 
water from the steam- 
jet runs away, and the 
hole 




Fig. 9, b.— FORMATION OF HOT SPRING FROM 
A FUMAROLE ON A CLIFF-FACE. 
The steam erodes the upper wall of the pipe and de- 
posits silicates on the lower rim, gradually forming a 
basin in which boiling water collects. Examples may 
be seen at Wairakei. 



blow- 



fumarole continues as a 
(cf. fig. 9, A, also fig. 68, Kerapiti Blow-hole). 
Evolution of Boiling Spring. — Should, however, the surface 



1 For those who deny the physical possibility at such a temperature 
of dissociated water-substance, we can substitute "superheated hydrogen," 
which would become oxidized in the more superficial strata. There is 
of course the alternative theory of Brun that fumaroles are due to the 
percolation of surface water to heated rocks, and have altogether a more 
superficial origin (cf. footnote, p. i6). 



36 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 



be nearly flat, water collects about the mouth of the fuma- 
role, and a ring of silica is gradually deposited around it. In 
this way a basin is built up, which fills with condensed water 
(fig. 9, D). Should the basin be relatively large, the water 
in it may cool sufficiently to check the exuberance of the 
fumarole by running down its pipe. A condition of equili- 
brium is reached, and an ordinary boiling or hot spring 



/,|t>^, [Deposit 




Terrace 

Formation 

starting 



Fig. 9, c— FUMAROLE ON GENTLY SLOPING SURFACE. 
The fumarole may occasionally persist, but more often results in the gradual formation of a 
hot spring. Note the terrace formation (cf. fig. 8). 



results (vide fig. 
if the steam in 
surface. 

Formation of 
of equilibrium 
spring may be 
times a geyser, 
cooled to dam 
geyser of small 



9, D). Such a boiling spring may also result 
the fumarole condenses before reaching the 

Small Continuous Geyser. — The condition 
is, however, somewhat unstable, so that a 
sometimes a boiling cauldron and at other 

Thus, should the water be just insufficiently 

back the fumarole, we get a continuous 

altitude, such as Papakura, in which boiling 



GEYSERS AND ^lUD SPRINGS 



37 



water is shot in pulsating but otherwise continuous fashion 
some three or four feet into the air (vide fig. ii). 

There is every gradation from the boihng spring through 
the foregoing continuous geyser to the true geyser. 

Formation of True Geyser. — Finally the fumarole may 
become a true geyser. In this case the water which has 
condensed at the mouth of, or in the pipe of, the fumarole 



^f~^ 




Fig. 9, d.— FUMAROLE ESCAPING ON HORIZONTAL SURFACE. 
A ring of silica is deposited which gradually constitutes the rim of a pool of hot water. 
R, rim : darker shading indicates recent deposit of silica. 



is sufficient to dam back the uprising steam. As a result 
the water soon boils fiercely, and, becoming superheated 
at its lower depths, bursts into steam, and geyser action is 
started. The geyser may conform to one of two types : 
it may be regularly intermittent or it may be irregularly 
intermittent. The reasons for the regularity or otherwise 
of the intermissions we shah appreciate better after we have 
examined the mechanism of a geyser. 

A geyser may open on the surface into a pool of hot water. 



38 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 



like the Twin Geysers at Whakarewarewa (figs. 13, 14) and 
the Great Geyser of Iceland (fig. 10), or it may have rounded, 
dry masses of " geyserite," pouting lips as it were to its 
mouth, and no pool (fig. 15) like Pohutu and Wairoa geysers 
at Whakarewarewa (of. figs, i and 23). 

The diagram (fig. 10) represents the Great Geyser of 
Iceland, a geyser with a surface pool. Here is a tube T, 



Depth in 
feel- 



A, o feet. 



Boiling- 
point. 



Actual 

temperature 

observed. 



B, 59 feet 



C. 71 feet- 




276''f 



mr^ 



F F F 

Fig 10 -diagram OF THE GREAT GEYSER OF ICELAND. A TYPE IN WHICH 
THE TUBE OPENS THROUGH A B.\SIN. 
The figures on the left represent the theoretical boiling-points at different levels ; those on 
the right the actual temperatures registered by the thermometer at those levels. 

some 70 feet deep, into the lower part of which superheated 
water or steam enters. The water at the surface boils at 
roughly 212° F. ; 25 feet down, under the correspondingly 
increased pressure, it boils at 230° F. ; 59 feet down it 
boils at 266° F. Now if water from the lowest depths were 
brought suddenly to the surface it would boil with such 
instantaneous violence as to make it practically a high 
explosive. Or if, on the other hand, the water 59 feet down 
were, by a sudden incursion of superheated water or steam, 




■r. 

A 



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z => 

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< Z 

?H 

- Z 

:i; O 

— 'J 






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Fig. 12.— a close VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF PAPAKURA GEYSER. THE SILICA 
DEPOSIT IS RE.MARKABLE FOR ITS BEAUTY OF COLOURING. 





■ ■«*^»»f; 



Fig. 13.— a geyser OPENING THROUGH A POOL OF BOILING WATER. 
Behind it, obscured by the steam, is a lake of boiling water : the foreground is a thin crust of silica 
undermined and honeycombed by boiling water. On the hills in the background are the Government 
• . -eries of forest trees, Whakarewarewa. 



w 





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Fig. 15.— the MOUTH OF AN EXTINCT GEYSER, WHAKAREVVAREWA, A GEYSER OF 

THE DRY-MOUTHED TYPE. 






Fig. io.-THE " BRAIN-POT," WHAKAREWAREWA, THE CONE OF AN EXTINCT GEYSER. 
According to tradition, a Maori warrior cooked his adversaries' brains in this "pot," presumably when it 

was in the dying-out stage of a fumarole. 
38] 



GEYSERS AND MUD SPRINGS 39 

raised in temperature, say, lo degrees above its boiling-point, 
it would burst into steam and shoot up the superincumbent 
column of water as a geyser. The same result would follow 
if, say, six feet of water were baled from the top, for with 
the diminished pressure the deep water, which formerly 
was just below its boihng-point, would suddenly find itself 
well above that point, and would at once explode into steam. 
These are the factors of geyser action. 

Superheated water enters, say, by the fissure F. The 
water at B, which normally boils at 266° F., is suddenly 
raised, say, to 280" F. It boils furiously, and shoots out 
the water above it. In so doing, it empties the top of the 
tube T, and lessens the pressure on the deeper water at C. 
This in turn suddenly finds itself above the boiling-point, 
and is ejected, while more water flows in from the fissures FF, 
and the more readily as these also are now under lessened 
pressure. And so the process goes on until the reservoir 
of water is exhausted. 

If, however, there is a basin at the mouth, considerable 
quantities of partially cooled water collect, and, as the 
violence of the geyser lessens, begin to run down the mouth 
and cool the water in the tube. The geyser then subsides 
for a time, until this cooled water is again brought to the 
boiling-point, when the cycle recommences. 

Thus we get regular intermission. But regularity of 
action may be brought about in other ways, for some geysers 
with no basins may yet be regular in their action. It is 
conceivable that this may sometimes be brought about 
by the manner in which steam bubbles rise through the 
magma. If you take a long tube, say a test tube, of some 
thick fluid and apply heat to the bottom until it boils, steam 
will be evolved, not in one continuous stream, but in a series 
of bubbles, and the thicker the liquid and the longer the 
tube, the larger the bubbles and the more explosive their 
bursting force. Now take what is practically a test tube 
many miles deep, filled in its lower part with molten magma 
through which, heated water-gas is bubbling. The bubbles 



40 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

will tend to be fairly large, especially as they approach 
the surface, and will tend to rise in fairly regular inter- 
mission. Such a bubble coming in contact with the deepest 
layers of superheated water will cause it to boil very rapidly. 
The rapidity of the process will be much enhanced by the 
fact that the steam, on meeting the water, will evolve its 
" latent heat." This starts geyser action, which continues 
until the available reservoir is exhausted. The next great 
bubble of steam will then repeat the process. 

The curious and hitherto unexplained feature is the 




Fig. 17.— diagram OF GEYSER, QUITE QUIESCENT BETWEEN OUTBURSTS, 

IN HYDROSTATIC CONNEXION WITH NEIGHBOURING RIVER. R. 

SS, passages conveying steam. The shaded area represents siliceous deposit. 



absolute quiescence of some geysers between the bursts. 
Thus, at Whakarewarewa, Pohutu, and Wairoa, during their 
often prolonged periods of inactivity, are ordinary quiet 
holes in the rocky ground, with scarcely a trace of steam 
coming from them. Why ? 

I think the reason is that cold surface-water has access to 
their tubes and shuts down the geysers like a valve, until 
it in turn is boiled by the increasing volume of steam from 
beneath. It is suggestive that both here and at Wairakei, 
Taupo, and Orakei-Korako the geysers are all close to the 
banks of rivers (vide fig. 17). 



GEYSERS AND ^^lUD SPRINGS 41 

To sum up, then, the view here advocated is that geysers 
— at any rate the geysers of Xew Zealand — are fumaroles 
whose steam has condensed into boiUng water in the geyser 
tubes ; and that this water is from time to time superheated 
by the access of fresh bursts of steam to a temperature 
above its boihng-point. In some cases, at any rate, the 
working of the geyser is modified by cold surface-water 
which exerts a restraining or valve action, and which is 
in its turn superheated by the steam. 

The above explanations of geyser action are based, it 
must be admitted, on comparatively limited data. It is 
of course impossible to explore the recesses of an active 
geyser, and still more so to take a Jules Verne expedition 
to the central magma, which holds really the key of the 
situation, and the structure of a geyser has therefore been 
more or less of the nature of a conjecture based on close 
observation of its working. From observation of effects 
w.e can deduce probable causes, but many points are still 
arguable. 

Luckily there is at Rotorua an extinct geyser, which 
has been to some extent explored, and from its skeleton 
we are able to check some of our theories. 

It is situated at Whakarewarewa, in the very heart of 
the hot springs and geysers, extinct and active, a circular 
hole with the typical rounded sinter edges of a geyser, 
just large enough for a man to squeeze his body through. He 
needs must be a brave man too, with violent boiling springs 
within a few feet all around threatening at any moment 
to flood the orifice, and I must confess that I myself pre- 
ferred to > get my evidence without personal exploration 
and therefore cannot vouchsafe for the entire accuracy of 
this description. 

The mouth of the geyser, then, apparently leads down a 
short tube into a small vaulted cavern, into the floor of 
which open small passages by which the steam or hot water 
must have entered. The walls of the tube and of the 
cavern are lined by smooth, bossed masses of silica. 



42 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 



As we have already seen, it is not suggested that the 
cavern is a necessary and essential part of the mechanism : 
so long as the geyser tube is capacious enough to act as a 
reasonable-sized reservoir the cavern might be dispensed 

with, and on theoretical 
grounds there is reason 
to believe that the lower 
part of the geyser tube is 
a good deal more capa- 
cious than its mouth (cf. 
fig. i8). 

It might be thought that 
a geyser was sufficiently 
awesome to be left by 
mankind severely alone, 
but familiarity breeds 
contempt, and man, ever 
inquisitive and interfering, 
has not long hesitated 
to lay sacrilegious hands 
upon even it ; and so it 
comes about that he has 
discovered that its action 
can be controlled. The 
geyser can be tamed, as can be any other wild beast, and 
incidentally the taming process has served to corroborate 
some of our theories. 

As we have seen, if we can lighten the load on the water 
in the depths of the geyser tube, we reduce the boiling- 
point of the water, and this water, which was in equilibrium 
just below its boiling-point, suddenly finds itself above that 
point, bursts into steam, and starts geyser action. 

We can reduce the load in two ways : we can bale off 
some of the top water, or we can lower the specific gravity 
of the water in the upper part of the column — in other words, 
make that water lighter. Both these methods are employed 
by the guides when they wish to make a geyser " play." 




Fig. i8.— dry-mouthed GEYSER, WITH 
NO GEYSER B.\SIN. 



GEYSERS AND MUD SPRINGS 



43 



Fig. 19 represents a small geyser on the banks of the 
Waikato, near Taupo. Normally it is a boiling pool, but 
by removing the plug P from the side of the spring the 
water-level is lowered and the spring becomes a geyser. 

The other method is to pour soap into the geyser tube. 
In the geyser tube a foaming mass of soapsuds quickly 
forms, and as quickly boils over. A cubic foot of soapsuds 
is a good deal lighter than a cubic foot of water, and con- 
sequently the pressure on the deep water is rapidly lessened, 
the boiling-point is lowered, and geyser action is started. 
Somewhat similar tricks are played with fumaroles and with 
hot springs. Thus, if a piece of lighted paper be held over 
the mouth of a languid " blow-hole " it starts into brisk 
activity. The heated air from the flaming paper rises and 
causes a momentary 
lessening of atmo- 
spheric pressure over 
the mouth of the 
fumarole and on the 
escaping steam. 

The same effect is 
exemplified on a 
large scale in bad 
weather. With a fall 
of the barometer all 
the hot springs and 
fumaroles become 
more active, and if, 
as is usual with a 
low barometer, the 
air is moist, the 
steam becomes more 
quickh^ condensed, 
and hence more visible. Thus, on a fine hot day Whaka- 
rewarewa may show isolated puffs of white steam, in wet 
weather it is almost hidden in a cloud of vapour. In hot 
springs containing much dissolved gas it is the custom of 




Fig. 19.— boiling SPRING ON BANKS OF 
WAIKATO RIVER. 
This spring can be converted into a geyser by removal 
of the plug. 



44 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW. ZEALAND 

the guides to " make the water boil " by throwing in it a 
handful of fine gravel. Gas bubbles collect and cling to 
each particle of sand, and disengaging, the hitherto quiet 
pool is soon in a state of brisk effervescence. The pheno- 
menon, with the help of crumbs, is familiar to drinkers 
of champagne, and so such pools get to be known as 
" champagne pools" (fig. 21). 

A geyser may not only be made to play, but may be 
damped down. There is a small geyser in the Sanatorium 
Gardens at Rotorua which is utilized to supply hot water 



Fig. 20.— DI.AGRAMM.\TIC SECTION OF THE CONE OF A " DRY-MOUTH " GEYSER 
G.T. Gcyser-tube. G. Geyser mouth. T. Terrace formation. 

to the Blue Bath (fig. 22). When it is necessary to repair the 
pipes leading from it, a hose is turned into the geyser mouth, 
and all action can be stopped for days together. 

Silica. — No account of the geysers and hot springs would 
be complete without some mention of the wonderful and 
beautiful sinter structures built up by the agency of siliceous 
waters. The inside of a geyser tube, in so far as we can view 
it, consists of a thick deposit of silica, generally rounded in 
knobs from the size of an orange to that of a football, 
with smooth surfaces polished by the friction of boiling 
water and steam (vide figs. 18 and 2 )). At the mouth these 
expand into rounded hemispherical lips, smooth cm their 
inner or tube surface, and gradually becoming, on their outer 




Fig. 21.— a "CHAMPAGNE POOL." 




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NATIVE SHRUB. 

The deposit was removed from the wet soil beneath the still vigorous parent plant. 



[45 



GEYSERS AND MUD SPRINGS 45 

or peripheral surface, more and more rough with an intricate 
pattern of silica ripples. These rounded lips form a geyser 
cone, and in a geyser of any size and age are themselves 
raised on a broad, blunt cone of terraced platforms. As 
more and more water is poured out, and ever fresh silica 
deposited, the height and girth of the cone increase, exactly 
as in a volcanic cone, until a veritable hill of silica is formed, 
perhaps some forty feet high and a couple of hundred feet 
in diameter (fig. 24). The semi-extinct geyser Waikite is a 
perfect example. As a result of its own activity the geyser 







; ), ,-'>,— .^- ^'.O- -- ^ ' ■ '_---^ 



Fig. 27.— the FRETTED FLOOR OF A SILICEOUS POOL ON 
A GEYSER TERRACE. 

has now to shoot an extra forty feet before it reaches the 
open air, and in the tube above the ground-level its walls 
are comparatively cold. For this reason, not only is more 
silica deposited in the tube, thereby choking it, but the cooled 
water damps back geyser action, and the geyser becomes 
extinct, its energy finding a fresh and perhaps distant out- 
let. Thus every geyser, like every living creature, has a 
time limit to its life. 

The terraced platforms of the cone are inlaid with shallow 
pools, whose floors and rims are covered with a network of 
raised sihcate tracery of elaborate and often most exquisite 



46 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

design (vide figs. 26 and 27). Here and there are deeper 
pools, as if Nature had intended to provide a sumptuous 
bath, while at the rounded margins of the terraces there is 
a tendency to the formation of stalactites, stalagmites, 
and fluted columns. On a heroic scale, such was the con- 
struction of the lost Pink and White Terraces. 

In a minor degree we see the same deposition of sinter 




Fig. 28.— a mud VOLCANO IN ACTPVE ERUPTION. 

The height of the cone was about seven feet, and it persisted for several years, in 

spite of denudation by heavy rainfall. Rotorua district. 

around all the hot springs of this district. Sinter or geyserite 
is deposited from siliceous waters as they cool ; where on 
the margins of pools there are growing mosses, grass, twigs, 
or roots, these are rapidly coated with silica, and, getting 
welded into a conglomerate, materially assist in the sinter 
architecture (cf. fig. 26). Naturally, round the extreme 
margins of pools, where the water is most cooled, the de- 
position is greatest, and here too, where the water is hot 
but not boiling, the deposition of silica is assisted by the 



GEYSERS AND MUD SPRINGS 47 

action of algae. ^ These, by some process of acclimatization, 
appear to flourish in water at surprisingly high temperatures, 
and can exist in the partially cooled water at the margins 
of pools, and on their death, become silicated up in coral- 
like masses, thus aiding materially in the formation of the 
beautiful scalloped edges that rim the pools. 

Silica again may be deposited on projecting rocks, boughs, 
and fallen tree-trunks, eventually completely covering them 
and fringing them with stalactites. In this way curious 
and sometimes weird and grotesque shapes are evolved 
(cf. Dragon's Mouth, fig. 66). An example of this, where man 
has discreetly aided nature, may be seen in the Eagle's Nest 
Geyser (fig. 73). 

Hot Mud Springs. — While geysers compel our respectful 
admiration, the boiling mud pools fascinate by their very 
repulsiveness. We have seen that there is a substratum 
of clay, derived from decomposed siliceous rocks and volcanic 
tuff, underlying considerable areas in the Thermal District, 
and in places this clay outcrops on the surface and may form 
high hills. It is of the finest quahty, and varies in colour 
from the pure white of kaolin,- through grey, yellow, and red, 
to brilliant purple. Through this clay fumaroles are emitting 
steam, churning up the clay mto " porridge-pots " (fig. 31). 
Such boiling mud holes are generally found at the bottom 
of shelving pits of pumice and clay (fig. 30), enlarged by 
the falling in of their crumbling sides into the bottomless 
morass, but may also occur surrounded by sinter (fig. 29), or 
even covered by this rock and apparent only through fissures. 
They bubble and churn fiercely, splashes of hot mud being 
thrown intermittently a foot or two into the air, to fall 
back on to the oily surface of the pool with a sullen and 
ominous " plop." The natural oily surface of the liquid 
mud is often enhanced in its oiliness by a thin layer of 

1 W. H. Weed, gth Annual Rep. U.S.G.S., 1889. Amer. Journ Set., 
xxxviii (1889). 

2 Kaolin consists of AI2O3 about 40 per cent., CaO about 3 per cent., 
SiOa about 43 per cent., and HoO about 14 per cent. 



48 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

petroleum. As bubbles of steam rise to the surface they 
burst, often with the formation of flower-like fountains 
of mud— the sort of lilies one might expect to see adorning 
a medieval hell (fig. 31). Such pools may be seen at their 
best— or worst— at Tikitere and at Arikikapakapa near 
Rotorua (vide fig. 32). Often, too, there is a peculiar 
penetrating odour of cooking bacon about these pools, an 
odour which I am totally unable to explain, but which calls 
up involuntary suggestions of hidden cuhnary tragedies ! 

In places where the mud is especially thick and tenacious 
it is built up into miniature volcanoes (figs. 28 and 35), 
frequently from two to six feet high, but occasionally, 
as at Wai-o-tapu (fig. 60), of very much larger proportions. 
The mud on the outside of these cones— which, by the way, 
are built up in precisely the same way as ordinary volcanic 
cones— dries and hardens under the sun, and such volcanoes 
may persist for many years. The smaller ones generally 
liquefy under heavy rain and become again " mud pools." 
In tlie age-long churning and sifting by steam bubbles, 
every trace of grit and stone is wholly sifted to the bottom 
and eliminated, so that the mud remains as a smooth, bland 
unguent, which dries to an impalpable greasy powder. 
This mud is ideal in consistency for therapeutical purposes, 
and makes most excellent and soothing baths. 




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PART II 
BALNEOLOGICAL 



49 



CHAPTER V 

THE MINERAL-WATER HEALTH RESORTS — SPAS 

While New Zealand is a country peculiarly rich in mineral 
springs, and especially in thermal springs, there are only 
three or four places that have yet reached such a stage of 
development as would entitle them to be dignified with the 
name of spas. Of these, Rotorua, Te Aroha, and Hanmer 
are managed by the Government, and Rotorua alone can 
be considered fully equipped in accordance with European 
standards. 

When we consider that less than a hundred years ago 
the country was literallv in the Stone Age, and that even 
now its population is little more than a million, it is sur- 
prising, not that development is incomplete, but that so 
much has been done and so high a standard reached. 

In addition to the three government spas there are 
numerous smaller health resorts that have been started by 
private or municipal enterprise, with or without government 
assistance. Thus, north of Auckland, the saline springs 
of Helensville are gradually being developed by local enter- 
prise, while Waiwera on the east coast and Kamo, with 
its wonderful carbonic acid gas springs, have baths and 
hotel accommodation. 

Farther south, on the east coast, are the unique thermal 
iodine waters of Morere and Te Puia. Inland, in the Wai- 
kato district, is Okoroire, while in the thermal district are 
Taupo, Wairakei, and Wai-o-tapu. There are, in addition, 
numerous places boasting springs that would make the 
reputation of a European city, whose primitive baths at 
present serve only local needs. 

51 



52 THE HOT SPRINGS CYF NEW ZEALAND 

All these are health resorts in the making, potential spas, 
and their ultimate fame and prosperity are assured as 
population increases. 

It will perhaps be most convenient to describe these 
places in groups corresponding roughl}- to their mineral- 
water classification. 

Sulphur Waters.^Rotorua, Hanmcr, Taupo, Wairakei, 
and Wai-o-tapu, all, with the exception of Hanmer, in the 
tliermal district. 

Alkaline Waters. — Te Aroha. 

Saline Waters. — Helensville, Waiwcra, and Tarawera. 

Iodine Waters. — Mororo and Te Puia. 

Calcium Carbonated Waters. — Kamo. 

Simple Thermal Waters.— Okoroire, and the Waikato 
springs. 

The Sulphur Wathr Sp.\s 

These comprise Rotorua and all there sorts of the Thermal 
District ; and though of all these places Rotorua alone can 
be considered a spa in the modern acceptance of the term, 
with full facilities for balneological treatment, yet there 
are numerous other centres where may be found wonderful 
hot springs and baths which, though simple in construction, 
have a special fascination from their very simplicity. 

At these " natural " spas one may bathe in hot water 
in the most primitive of huts, or, better still, in the leafy 
shade of overhanging boughs, or in a rocky basin under the 
stars (fig. 36). 

With only a bath-towel for equipment, and with no bother 
about tickets and attendants and prescriptions, one can 
enjoy a bath in all its prodigality of mineral water and with 
the invaluable adjunct of freshness both of water and air, 
which the bather in the prosaic civilized bath never tastes. 
The ubiquitous sand-fly alone disturbs the prevailing 
harmony and peace. 

Such conditions conduce to rest of mind and body, and 
for the tired dweller in towns are often more efficacious 




Fig. 36.— HIXE.MOA'S BATH. 

A natural warm pool on the shores of Mokoia Island in the centre of Lake Rotor,ia. It was in this 
bath accordmg to tradition, that Hinemoa rested and recuperated after her long swim from the main- 
land to jom her lover. It is a typical example of a Maori bath. 



MINERAL-WATER HEALTH RESORTS— SPAS 53 

than the best-planned and most elaborate arrangements of 
an up-to-date spa. 

There is too the advantage of an alfresco sun and wind 
bath. It is as the difference between a swim in the open 
sea, with buffeting surf to meet and the open shore to dress 
dn, and the ordered comfort of a first-class swimming bath 

In addition there is always the diversion of many and 
weird thermal" sights," though the adventurous are advised 
not to explore too incautiously without a guide. 

" Natural baths," generally of Maori origin, may be 
found over an area of more than a hundred square miles, 
but the principal baths are congregated at Rotorua, with its 
Maori suburbs of Ohinemutu and Whakarewarewa, and at 
Wai-o-tapu, Wairakei, Taupo, and Tokaanu. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE SULPHUR SPAS 
ROTORUA 

RoTORUA, a small town uf sunic 3,000 inhabitants, is the 
chief place in the Thermal District, the principal spa of 
New Zealand, and the principal tourist centre. It takes its 
name from the lake ' on whose shores it is built, and is laid 
out in American fashion in rectangular blocks and broad 
straight streets. Being purely a tourist resort, it consists 
mainly of boarding-houses and hotels. To the north and 
south of it are the ancient Maori villages of Ohincmutu 
and Whakarewarewa,* flimsily perched around, between, 
and sometimes actually upon, boiling springs and fumaroles 
on ground that seems to the uninitiated totally unsafe to 
walk upon. It was of course the presence of these springs 
that originally determined the native settlement, for as in 
Europe wherever there is a hot spring there may be found 
a trace of Roman occupation, so in New Zealand wherever 
there is a hot spring there will be found a Maori whare.' 
The boiling springs and fumaroles serve to cook all the food, 
to wash all the clothes, and to supply primitive but luxurious 
open-air hot baths. In the cold days of winter there was 
no need to trouble about fires — a real trouble in the. days 
before matches — but one could wallow luxuriously in a 
hot pool by the hour together while the kumaras * cooked 

1 " Roto " — a lake ; " rua " — two, twin, or second. 

2 " Rewa-rewa " — mist, steam ; " whaka " — a causative, something that 
makes the steam rise. 

3 A hut. 

* Sweet potatoes. 

-■54 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 55 

in a fumarole alongside. It is no wonder that the Maori 
built alongside the hot springs. These native villages, 
though now decadent and semi- European, add a vivid 
touch of the picturesque, particularly welcome in the some- 
what matter-of-fact and prosaic life of a modern English 
community. 

The Hot Springs. — There are three main groups of hot 
springs. 

At Whakarewarewa are the far-famed geysers, hundreds 
of boiling springs, fumaroles, and boiling mud pools, and 
one great pool of boiling water that almost deserves its 
name of a " lake." 

At Ohinemutu there are exactly the same phenomena, 
but thermal activity is somewhat less fierce ; geysers, which 
used to figure prominently in purely Maori days, are here 
apparently extinct, and the boiling springs are surrounded 
to their edges by peaceful vegetation ; there is too a hot 
lake, but it is not actually boiling, and tea-tree flourishes to 
its very margin. The third group lies between these two 
at Rotorua proper, and, though not so abundant in output 
or so fierce in activity, is yet of such value on account of 
the unique combination that it offers of absolutely distinctive 
and unlike thermal waters, that it determined the site of 
the town. Indeed, there is probably no spa in the world 
so rich in hot mineral waters covering so wide a range of 
therapeutic possibilities. On the one hand there are the 
alkaline siliceous sulphur waters, arising in immense quan- 
tities from a large number of springs, at or near the boiling- 
point, and each differing in minor details of analysis from 
its neighbour ; on the other, there are strong sulphuric 
acid hot springs, more circumscribed in area and output, 
but quite unlike any waters known in Europe, and possessing 
unique powers of stimulating the cutaneous circulation when 
used as a bath. Then there are the hot mud springs, 
consisting chiefly of silicates with a large proportion of 
free sulphur, which are used for " fango " baths; the 
fumaroles charged with sulphuretted hydrogen and those 



56 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

charged with sulphurous acid, both of which arc used for 
vapour baths ; and finally there are tepid sulphuric acid 
springs, bubbling with free carbonic acid gas. 

All these natural resources combine to build up the 
reputation of Rotorua as a bathing resort, but it is on the 
sulphuric acid baths, the Priest and Postmaster, that that 
reputation chiefly rests. Only in drinking waters is the 
spa deficient, the alkaline sulphur waters alone being 
available, supplemented by the valuable waters transported 
from Tc Aroha. 

Access. — By train from Auckland or Wellington : the 
former a journey of eight hours, the latter a long and tedious 
pilgrimage of some sixteen hours. There are, however, 
sleeping- and dining-cars on the train whereby the journey 
is shortened materially. Those who prefer a less conventional 
trip can come by motor from Napier through Taupo, and so 
through the heart of the thermal district, a most interesting 
trip ; or, if coming from Wellington, can take the Wanganui 
River en route. 

Climate. — The climate of Rotorua is determined first by 
general geographical conditions, latitude, the surrounding 
ocean, and prevailing winds, which affect the climate of 
the country as a whole ; then by local conditions, which 
have perhaps an even more potent influence. 

Situated in latitude 38° 8' S., an equivalent in Europe 
to that of the south of Spain, there would naturally be a 
fairly warm climate were there not important modifying 
local features. New Zealand, surrounded by the largest 
expanse of ocean on the globe, has essentially an island 
climate, equable and mild, with a minimum contrast be- 
tween day and night temperatures and between winter 
and summer, and the North Island is itself so comparatively 
small that no part of it is sufficiently far from the sea as 
to possess a truly inland climate. 

Even Taupo, the geographical centre, is but a hundred 
miles from the coast, and Rotorua is fifty miles nearer. 
Still, to a certain extent the whole plateau of the Thermal 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 57 

District has an inland climate, is dryer, more bracing, and 
has greater contrasts of winter and summer than the coastal 
districts. The conditions are accentuated by the height 
of the plateau and by the dry, porous nature of the pumice 
soil. 

Rotorua is situated on the shores of a lake roughly 
circular in form and 6 or 7 miles in diameter, at an altitude 
of nearly 1,000 feet, in a great basin of the hills, some 
20 miles long and 10 broad. These hills, fern-clad on their 
cleared lower slopes, their summits covered with rapidly 
disappearing primeval forest, rise to a height of 1,000 
or 1,500 feet above the level of the valley, and serve to 
shelter it to some extent from the full force of the winds. 

The prevailing winds are the south-west and the north- 
east. The former is a cool and bracing wind coming from 
the high central plateau and snow-clad mountains of the 
Ruapehu group, and brings fine weather, bright, sunny, 
and tonic. It profoundly modifies the climate, and the 
weather is never sultry or oppressive while it is blowing. 
Frequently, however, it is somewhat boisterous and uncom- 
fortably cold, and this constitutes what is perhaps the most 
serious climatic drawback to Rotorua. 

The north-east to north wind, which comes next in import- 
ance, is the rainy wind. When it blows, Rotorua experiences 
its nearest approach to mugginess, and rain almost invariably 
follows. In fact, at these times the comparatively inland 
climate is exchanged for a moist sea one, the ocean to the 
north being only about 40 miles away. 

In very fine, settled weather, however, there may be a 
daily alternation of light airs from the north-east and south- 
west, a true sea and land breeze, when the north-east 
wind no longer brings rain. 

The altitude, however, is perhaps the most important 
local factor in modifying the climate. While not suffi- 
ciently high to serve as a contra-indication in atheromatous 
and other cases in which a high altitude is undesirable, it 
is quite sufficiently raised_^to render the climate distinctly 



58 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

bracing except at certain seasons. The slightly rarefied 
air is more easily penetrated by the rays of heat and light, 
while radiation of heat and evaporation of moisture proceed 
more rapidly. As a consequence, there is a greater brilliancy 
of atmosphere than at places near the sea-level, the direct 
sunshine is hotter, the temperature in the shade much 
cooler, and there is a greater contrast of warm days and 
cool nights. 

Another effect of the altitude of Rotorua is the compara- 
tive dryness of the atmosphere. This, while it is undoubtedly 
diminished by the presence of the lake and by the large 
amount of steam constantly arising from the hot springs, 
is sufficiently marked as a rule to prevent the air from feeling 
relaxing. Probably, however, the nature of the soil, the 
sparseness of the vegetation, and the configuration of 
the surrounding hills have all something to do with the 
local freedom from mists. It is quite common to see the 
whole circle of forest-clad hills full of tangled mists, while 
the broad valley beneath is perfectly clear. 

Sunshine. — As in New Zealand generally, there is a very 
considerable amount of bright, hot sunshine, a matter not 
only of physical but of psychical importance to the invalid. 
As a consequence, a much more open-air life than in England 
is habitual. 

Rainfall. — This is fairly heavy, but fortunately tends to 
come in short, sharp rain-squalls, when a large amount may 
be registered in a few minutes, or is massed into two or 
three days of heavy downpour, ushered in by a north-east 
wind. July and August are generally the wettest months. 

The following tables give a general idea of the comparative 
rainfall and sunshine records of Rotorua and some British 
health resorts, the rain being the total fall in inches per 
annum, the sunshine the total hours per annum : 

Rain. Sun. 

Rotorua ...... 55-0 2303 

Hanmer ...... 41-12 2231 

Strathpeffer ..... 32-24 1 188-3 

Scarborough ..... 27-27 1406-8 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 



59 



Harrogate 

Bath . 

Margate 

Hastings 

Worthi 

Jersey 



Worthing 



Rain. 


Sun. 


29-45 


1501-8 


3047 


1467-3 


23-21 


1539-7 


29-07 


1782-9 


29-96 


1845-4 


34-21 


1926-8 



The Season. — In so far as the treatment of invalids is 
concerned the season lasts all the year round, but the busiest 
time is from Christmas to the end of April. February is 
sometimes uncomfortably hot and close, more especially 
if, as is usual at this season, bush fires are raging in the hills 
of the back country, and should be avoided by those needing 
a bracing climate, while the late winter and early spring, 
July to September, are apt to be wet. 

Frequently, however, the winter, especiahy the early 
winter, is remarkably fine and suitable for those invahds 
who need a tonic climate. The winters vary considerably, 
but in a good winter there may be day after day, and some- 
times week after week, with a blue sky, a really hot sun, 
and a minimum of wind. With this there is a cold shade 
temperature and a fairly keen frost at night. Such con- 
ditions of keen, sparkling, exhilarating atmosphere recall that 
of an Alpine resort, though snow is unknown, and are particu- 
larly suitable for taking the tonic open-air hot baths. They 
will be especially appreciated by visitors from the hotter 
coastal districts of Australia, and if only the houses of 
Rotorua were built more warmly, a course of winter treat- 
ment would hold out many advantages over the usual 
summer one. 

Sanitation. — The water supply is beyond reproach. A 
spring issuing from the foot of a mountain discharges 
practically direct into the main, and the water is not only 
clear and sparkling, but is free from any possible risk of 
contamination. As we have shown elsewhere (p. 27), 
owing to the insoluble nature of silicate rocks in cold water, 
the springs of siliceous districts are remarkably free from 
inorganic salts, and it can be asserted with confidence that 



60 THE HOT SPRINGS OF XEW ZEALAND 

no more palatable and pure drinking water exists than at 
Rotorua. 

There is an efficient water-carriage sewerage system, 
discharging through a septic tank well removed from all 
habitations. The average death-rate is about lo per i,ooo ; 
but as this includes the hospital, in which cases are drawn 
from a large surrounding area, the true death-rate is some- 
what lower. 

Hospitals. — In addition to the usual general hospital, 
there is the Government Sanatorium or Mineral-water 
Hospital. This is reserved for patients requiring balneo- 
logical treatment who are hardly able to stand the expense 
of boarding and treatment outside. This hospital, formerly 
of only thirty-five beds for men and women, has recently 
been considerably enlarged. It is under the charge of 
the Government Balneologist, and patients, in addition 
to receiving exactly the same treatment as private 
patients, have the advantage of skilled nursing, a very great 
desideratum in serious cases. King George V Military 
Hospital for physio-therapeutics was established during the 
war on Pukeroa hill, overlooking Ohinemutu and the lake. 
Here, under ideal natural surroundings, several thousand 
wounded and invalided soldiers have been treated with 
baths, massage, electricity, sunshine, and fresh air. 

Accommodation.— There are two hotels in Rotorua proper 
and one each at Ohinemutu and W'hakarewarewa. In 
addition there are some thirty to forty boarding-houses, 
some of which accommodate considerably more than a 
hundred guests, so that, under normal conditions, there is 
little danger of not finding a bed : at Christmas, however, 
and on special occasions, such as fetes and tournaments, 
it is not advisable to rely on this. 

Amusements.— Visitors accustomed to the casinos and 
bands of the continental spas must not look for them in 
Rotorua. There arc, however, many compensations. There 
are, of course, golf links, and the public gardens, in which 
stand the baths, are not only beautiful in themselves, but 



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THE SULPHUR SPAS 



61 



they offer opportunities for games, such as bowls, croquet, 
and tennis, which many a famous European spa might 
envy. It may interest the visitor to learn that this magni- 
ficent garden, with its wealth of lawns, flowers, and shrubs, 
was laid out in a howling wilderness of sulphur beds and 
pumice. Practically every spadeful of soil was carted 
on to the site, and as the subsoil is hot, the gardens consti- 
tute a huge forcing-ground for plants. Here and there 
a boiling spring serves to remind one that the smiling garden 




Fig. 39.— \V.\R CAXOE, HOLLOWED FROM A SINGLE TREE-TRUNK 

ROTORUA. 



LAKE 



is an exotic, and on rainy days steam and strong whiffs 
of sulphur forcibly do so. 

Hydrothermal phenomena — geysers, boiling springs, and 
" mud pools" — more than compensate the ordinary visitor 
for the loss of casinos. 

Then, to be visited close at hand, there are the interesting 
and picturesque Maori villages perched precariously on 
the very brink of a medieval Hades ; launch picnics on 
Lake Rotorua and still more beautiful Roto-iti, trolling 
for trout for the uninitiated and fly-fishing for the expert, 
and numerous trips by motor or coach to spots beautiful 
or hair-raising. In general interest of outdoor surroundings 
there are indeed few spas which can rival Rotorua. 



62 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Cases Suitable for Treatment. — All those cases vaguely 
classed as " rheumatic " or " gouty," and more especially 
those requiring a somewhat tonic line of treatment ; cases 
of sciatica, lumbago, and fibrositis ; sub-acute and chronic 
neuritis ; cases of quiescent organic central nerve lesions 
requiring re-educative exercises ; stiff joints and wasted 
muscles from traumatic or other causes^in fact, practically 
all cases requiring physical treatment ; neurasthenics ; 
cases of high blood- pressure ; gouty glycosurics ; cases of 
chronic skin disease. 

The Baths. — There are two distinct types of bathing 
establishments, the Old Baths and the New. Each has 
certain peculiar advantages and certain drawbacks, but 
combined they form an establishment almost unique. 

The New or Main Baths are housed in one large building 
erected in 1908 in the midst of the gardens. Constructed 
on the homely model of the old English half-timbered house, 
but with pumice-concrete substituted for lath and plaster, 
and native timber in ])lace of oak, the building is in pictur- 
esque harmony with its garden surroundings, and the view 
from its upper windows is magnificent. Here are housed 
all the usual baths and appliances that one expects to find 
in a first-class spa in Europe ; comfortably fitted bath- 
rooms and dressing-rooms, public baths, Aix massage baths, 
a well-equipped massage and electrical department, a 
" pump-room," consulting-room, and waiting-rooms, the 
whole run under the strictest medical supervision. In 
the basement are the mud baths, supplied by the volcanic 
mud from local hot mud springs. 

In this building one may receive exactly the same treat- 
ments as at, say, Buxton or Harrogate, with the difference 
that, whatever water is ordered — and some are quite un- 
familiar in Europe — it has to be cooled very materially 
before use. No water has to be heated, and this is a very 
distinct advantage. 

In these baths the waters from the different springs are 
led in pipes to their destination, in the case of the acid 




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THE SULPHUR SPAS 63 

iPriest waters, in lead-lined pipes, and baths can be given 
at any prescribed temperature, with the accompaniment 
of douches, and with a minimum of fumes. 

The Old baths consist of scattered groups of buildings, 
for the most part erected over the actual springs. They 
are at present of timber, and, it must be confessed, some- 
what dilapidated and uninviting of appearance. Outward 
appearance must, however, be disregarded, for some of these 
baths are invaluable. They are the Pavilion, Duchess, 
Blue, and Postmaster baths. 

The Pavilion Baths house in somewhat primitive fashion 
the old Priest Baths, the public and private Rachel Baths, 
and the Ladies' Swimming-bath. 

The Old Priest Baths. — These are wooden piscinae built 
over the actual springs, so that the bather's feet rest on 
the natural pumice floor, through which well the waters and 
the accompanying gases. They are surrounded by rough 
dressing-boxes, and supplied with overhead douches of 
Rachel water, to wash off the acid as well as to act as ordinary 
douches, and with cold showers. To permit of the free 
escape of all gases, the baths are only partially roofed over, 
so that they are practically open-air baths. 

The Rachel Baths.- — These are numerous private simple im- 
mersion baths and two Public Rachel Baths, the latter shal- 
low concrete pools in which the water is maintained at 102° F. 

The Ladies' Swimming-hath is supplied by the Rachel 
Spring. For safety made rather shallow, it is open to the 
sky, and, with its silky soft water, is a luxury in the true 
sense of that much-overworked word. 

The Duchess Bath is a similar swimming-bath for men, 
but roofed in, and kept at a slightly higher temperature 
(98"^ F.) than the other swimming-baths, so that, while 
it is more useful for many therapeutic purposes, it is also 
distinctly relaxing as a swimming-bath. 

The Blue Bath is a larger completely open-air swimming- 
bath reserved for men. It is supplied by the Malfroy 
gey ers with a water closely resembling the Rachel, and is 



64 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

kept at 94° F. From its lower temperature and open-air 
character it is less relaxing than the Duchess. 

In the same building are the Vapour Baths (vide infra). 

The Postmaster Baths are situated on the lake shore some 
half-mile away. Built on the model of the Old Priest 
baths over the actual springs, and, on account of the potent 
nature of the fumes, perforce entirely open to the sky, 
these baths are the strongest, most efficacious, and at tlie 
same time most risky of the baths of Rotorua. 

The spout Baths at Whakarcwarewa are really a series of 
hot waterfalls rendered possible by the stupendous quantity 
of mineral water available from tlie overflow of a large 
boiling lake. The water, cooled in shallow pools, is led 
to a number of private baths, each of which has a controlled 
" spout," with about eight feet fall, and is fitted up with cold 
showers and dressing-boxes. The water somewhat resembles 
the Rachel, but is harslier, and at the same time more 
sulphurous, and this crude but very efficacious douche 
is of great value in such conditions as lumbago and chronic 
arthritis of the shoulder joints. 

Natural Baths. — There is quite a number of " natural 
baths," large rocky pools for the most part, filled with hot 
water of varying temperature and constitution, either fed 
by the overflow of neighbouring springs or by springs arising 
through their floors. Some of these springs have consider- 
able local fame, such as the " Lobster," the " Painkiller," 
etc., and there is no doubt whatever about their efficacy. 
At the same time, owing to their uncertain depths and 
temperatures, to the presence of gases, and to the absence 
of an attendant, these baths are excessively dangerous, 
and visitors are warned to let them severely alone. They 
are most fascinating and tempting, but are responsible for 
many sad tragedies. In addition there are numberless baths 
used by the Maori. Many a humble whare has alongside an 
open-air bath that a millionaire might well envy, and in the 
tea-tree scrub are hidden sequestered baths where family 
parties spend many happy hours with a " korero" ' and a pipe. 

1 Chat. 




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Fig. 43.— a MAORI WOMAN COOKING IN A STEAM-HOLE. 

An old perforated packing-case is sunk in the ground : this is covered with a dilapidated sack, and 
the food, placed in flax bags, is cooked by natural steam. 




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Fig. 46.— a MAORI MOTHER AND CHILD. 




Fig. 47.— a MAORI LAUNDRY. 
Washing clothes in a stream of hot mineral water at Ohinemutu. 




Fig. 4S.— weaving A FLAX M.AT. 
Such mats are used in the whares in lieu of carpets. 




Fig. 49.— HONGI, A MAORI GREETING. 
" Rubbing noses " is a misnomer ; the noses are rather pressed gently side by side. 







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Fig. 50.— a POI DAN'CE— MAORI WOMEN. 




Fig. 51.— a FIGURE OF THE POI DANCE. 
Balls of flax, suspended from a string of the same material, are used to accentuate the rhythm of the figure. 




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Fig. 55— another FIGURE IN THE HAKA. 




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THE SULPHUR SPAS 65 



The Mineral Waters 



The mineral waters of Rotorua, while of endless variety 
as regards minor differences of analysis, are of two main 
types, the alkaline and the acid, and it is to the latter that 
Rotorua owes its pre-eminence as a spa, and as the spa 
more especially for haths. In this direction it claims a fore- 
most position among the health resorts of the world, though 
in the matter of drinking-waters it is comparatively poor. 

Alkaline Siliceous Sulphur Waters. — Waters containing 
sodium sulphide or sulphuretted hydrogen are common 
enough in Europe, and indeed the world over, but highly 
siliceous waters are found only in volcanic springs of high 
temperature. The reason of this we have already seen/ the 
silicates being readily soluble in water at high temperatures, 
especially in the presence of alkalies,' but very insoluble in 
cold water. Siliceous waters are characteristic, therefore, 
of geyser regions, and are found in New Zealand throughout 
the Thermal District, and in the geyser districts of Iceland, 
of the Yellowstone, and of California. 

As we noted in discussing the origin of the waters of 
Rotorua,' all the waters of deep origin are alkaline, and all 
contain sulphides. The principal ingredients of these waters, 
then, are the chloride, sulphide, silicate, and bicarbonate 
of sodium, with smaller amounts of varying salts such as 
ferrous bicarbonate and sodium borate, and very variable 
amounts of carbonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen gases. 
They are characterized by their very high temperature 
(i8o° F. to 212° F.); perfect clearness, and soft emoUient feel. 

Seen in bulk in a perfectly fresh condition they present 
every gradation of tone from almost colourless to a clear 
and beautiful blue, the colour being due to ferrous salts 
and silicates. Under certain conditions, for instance 
storage and free exposure to the atmosphere, oxidation 
causes a cloudiness of the water, and a fine deposit of 
silica collects, while the sodium sulphide combines with 
1 See page 27. ^ See page 28. * See pages 28-30. 



66 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 



the atmospheric carbonic acid to form sodium carbonate, 
and the sulphur is hberated partly as sulphuretted hydrogen 
and partly as a flocculent precipitate. 

The number of these springs is very literally uncounted ; 
and though many of them have been analysed and show 
small differences, chemical, physical, and therapeutical, 
yet it will suffice if we take one spring as a type. 

The Rachel Spring. — The most famous of these springs, 
although by no means the largest, is the Rachel, which 
constitutes the main supply ' of alkaline water to the baths. 
The spring at one time may have been a geyser, in any 
case it overflowed a surrounding area of several acres and 
covered it with a firm stratum of silica. The shaft of the 
spring, some 15 or 20 feet in diameter, descends fairly 
vertically and has been sounded to 180 feet. Its walls 
are lined with geyserite, and the crystal-clear spring is 
of a deep blue. The surface temperature of the water varies 
from 185° F. to 200° F. according to the rapidity with which 
it is being drawn off, and occasionally it boils energetically. 
The water, which has a soft silky feel due to the silicates, 
and a somewhat Jiauseous taste due to sodium sulphide, 
is led by iron pipes — which, by the way, tend rapidly to 
be occluded by silication — to the baths, where it is used both 
for bathing and drinking purposes. 



.ANALYSIS OF RACHEI 


. WATER 


(1912) 


Grains per gallon 


Siidium chloride ....... 65-87 


Sodium sulphide . 












10-27 


Sodium silicate . 












2378 


Sodium bicarbonate 












1347 


Sodium sulphate . 












1-50 


Sodium borate 












1-85 


Potassium chloride 












1-26 


Lithium chloride . 












0-42 


Caesium chloride . 












trace 


Calcium bicarbonate 












0-41 


I-Y-rrous bicarbonate 












O-OI 


Carbon dioxide . 












9-17 



128-01 
Temperature 194° to 200° F. 

' The amount used from this particular source varies within very wide 
limits, but would average about 100,000 gallons a day. 



THE SULPHUR SPAS Q 

The most important therapeutic ingredients of this water 
are the sodium sihcate and sulphide : the borate and the 
hthium and iron salts are present in such small amounts 
as to be onl}' of minor importance. 

Sodium Silicate, Internal Use. — So little is known of the 
action of silicates that for a long time I felt some hesitation 
about using internally so highly siliceous a water as the 
Rachel, not realizing the important part played by silicon 
as a constituent of the body.' There was also, in view of 
the extensive deposits of silica from the water, a not un- 
natural prejudice against it locally. For some years, 
however, I made an ever-increasing use of it, and never 
could discover any ill effects that could reasonably be 
attributed to the silicate. Also, because it is hard to 
distinguish the individual effects of the salts of so 
complex a body as Rachel water, I could never satisfy 
myself as to the part played by the silicate. The water 
was useful in a large number of cases, and that was 
all that could be said. Felix ^ was one of the first ob- 
servers to point out the antiseptic properties of the 
alkaline silicates. He showed also ^ the power of a 
mineral water containing such silicates (Sail les Bains, 
9 "I grains per gallon) to dissolve uric acid in a test tube. 
Such an experiment in vitro is, of course, very inconclusive, 
as the conditions in which the silicate exist in the blood 
after absorption may be wholly different. That they are 
so absorbed is shown by the experiments of Zikgraf,^ who 
gave I gramme per diem of sodium silicate by the mouth, 
and found that the drug excreted in the urine. In a later 
communication '" he draws attention to the beneficial results 
in pulmonary tuberculosis of drinking the waters of Glashagen 
which contain 4 mg. of meta-silicate of sodium in 100 

> Cf. footnote, p. 27. 

2 Gazette des Eaux, March 19, 1898 (quoted by Weber). 

3 Annates d'Hydrologie, March 1898. 

* Beitr. z. Klin de Titberkul, 1906, Bd. v, Hft 4. 

^ Centr.f. inn. Med., May 16, 1908 (quoted Med. Annual, 1909). 



68 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

grammes of water. ' Pascault - gave teaspoonful doses of 
a solution of sodium silicate of a strength of 172 grammes 
per litre as a gastric sedative and anti-fermentative in gastric 
flatulence and pain, and in cases of intestinal toxaemia. 
Sodmm silicate has a remarkable power of arresting the 
fermentation of organic matter, and the beneficial effect 
of Rachel water in many cases of dyspepsia and auto- 
intoxication, and consequent goutiness, may well be due 
to the silicate. 

Scheffer ' gave sodium silicate in arterio-sclerosis, using 
an aqueous solution of i in 18, and a dose of two or three 
tablespoonfuls daily in milk, water, or wine, and a specific 
action has been claimed for the drug in the treatment of 
adenoma.^ 

Sodium Silicate, External Use,— Externally we are on safe 
ground. The bland, soothing, antiseptic action of sodium 
silicate is invaluable in the treatment of some skin diseases, 
and is also probably in part responsible for the rapid healing 
of many varicose and other ulcers in patients taking the 
baths. •• In the form of the Plombieres douche, it, taken 
in connexion with the borate, constitutes for this purpose 

^ He found a diminution of the leucocyte count in the peripheral blood, 
with an increased proportion of multinuclears, which, though this is a 
doubtful inference, may mean that the blood is more resistant and better 
able to deal with infectious agents. It is suggested in explanation of the 
more rapid healing of tuberculous cavities under the administration of 
silicates, that, as silicates constitute an important element in connective 
tissues, they promote the nourishment of that tissue in the lungs. If 
this is so they would be contra-indicated in chronic arthritis with a tendency 
to adhesions. 

2 Bull. Gen. de Ther., July 30, 1907. 

^ Med. Press, September 30, 1908. Silicates absorbed into the blood 
have a decalcifying effect on the body generally. In this connexion com- 
pare the advice of Sir James Barr, who, in " rheumatism," gives oatmeal 
porridge for the decalcifying effects of its contained silicates. 

* Percy Wilde, Med. Anjiual, 1912. 

^ Compare Felix, Gazette des Eaux, May 19, 1908. Also the Rachel 
water has been extensively used in the Rotorua Hospital as a local bath 
in septic wounds, with most excellent results in spite of its hypo-tonicity. 
Compare the silicate treatment of cancer by Zellcr (Miiench. Med. U'och, 
August 20, 191 2 ; and by Czerny, ibid.). 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 69 

an ideal bland antiseptic medium. Mechanically, also, it 
is of great assistance in the Aix massage douche. 

Deleterious Effects of Silicates. — While there is no evidence 
of the mechanical deposition of silica in the body in the 
same manner in which it is so freely deposited in pipes 
conveying mineral water, experiment has shown ^ that large 
doses of silicon administered over a considerable period 
cause uniform symptoms of poisoning of the nervous system, 
such as headache, dizziness, and tremor. Rashes appear on 
the skin, and symptoms of intestinal irritation are set up. 

Sodium Sulphide. — Authorities differ as to the therapeutic 
value of the various sulphides. Some, while admitting the 
utility of sodium sulphide, deny any virtue to hydrogen 
sulphide ; others affirm the potency of hydrogen sulphide, 
and Kisch - pointed out that sulphuretted hydrogen affords 
a combination that permits the introduction into the body 
of sulphur in the finest conceivable division. 

Analysis of mineral waters, unless the results are shown 
in terms of ions, is at best somewhat of a compromise, and 
the .exact grouping of molecules permits of the personal 
equation of the analyst. An older analysis of the Rachel 
water showed the sulphide entirely as sulphuretted hydrogen, 
but that made in 1912, of water carefully collected and 
examined as soon as possible after collection, returns the 
sulphide as the sodium salt. 

As we have noted elsewhere, this salt decomposes rapidly 
on exposure of mineral water to the atmosphere. Carbonic 
acid combines with the sodium to form the carbonate, 
while the liberated sulphur is in part precipitated and in 
part combines with the hydrogen of the water to form hydro- 
gen sulphide. Coincidentally there is with these changes, 
as might be anticipated, an alteration in the electrical 
conductivity of the water, as I have shown in the case of 
the Rachel water (page 76). 

Although the scientific evidence of the pharmacological 

1 Deut. Med. Woch, No. 38, 1903. 

2 System of Physiologic Therap. (Cohen), London, 1902. 



70 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

value of the sulphides is meagre/ the results of world-wide 
clinical experience of sulphur waters certainly point to 
their value in arthritic diseases. It is claimed that they 
stimulate the secretion of bile and also have a selective 
or intensive action of the metabolism of tissues affected by 
gout, so that, while their graduated use is beneficial, their 
incautious use may cause an exacerbation of symptoms 
which may result in an attack of acute gout. 

In the presence of alkaline salts sulphur is thought capable 
of acting as an oxygen carrier, thereby increasing the intra- 
molecular oxidation of albumin. 

It is probable that there is a tendency for the sulphur to 
combine with the iron of haemoglobin in the portal circula- 
tion, and so to hasten the destruction of effete red blood 
corpuscles. While in plethoric individuals this may possibly 
be desirable, in anaemic patients it is obviously an action 
to be avoided. 

The action of sulphur waters on the bowel would seem 
to depend more upon the accompanying salts than on the 
sulphur, and Rachel water is certainly not a purgative for 
most persons. 

On the whole, indeed, sulphur water per sc appears to 
have very little purgative effect, but is said - to have 
an antiseptic action on the bowel, and therefore to 
be beneficial in auto-intoxication. This action would in 
Rachel water be augmented by the presence of the borate 
and silicate of sodium. The sulphide is absorbed from 
the digestive tract and rapidly diffused through the tissues, 
to be eliminated by the skin, kidneys, and lungs. Hence, 



1 Experiments based on the pharmacological effects of sulphur waters 
do not as a rule differentiate between the action of the various and numerous 
ingredients of the water. Thus the very interesting and instructive 
investigations of Dr. David Brown (Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., May 191 1) show 
that the Harrogate " strong sulphur water " used internally was diuretic, 
and increased nitrogenous excretion and that of endogenous and exogenous 
uric acid, but the part played by sulphur in this remains uncertain. 

^ R. W. Wild, "The action and uses of Sulphur and certain of its Com- 
pounds as Intestinal Antiseptics," Proc Roy. Soc. Med., November 1910. 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 71 

sulphur waters are recommended in furunculosis, acne, and 
some forms of eczema. 

At Aachen, where the sulphur water, in conjunction with 
mercury, is used so extensively in the treatment of syphilis, 
it is believed that it brings out the symptoms of latent, and 
to that extent dangerous, syphilis. Mercury is supposed 
to be stored up in the tissues as an albuminate, the sulphur 
hastens albuminous katabolism, and thereby the excretion 
of mercury, and the latent symptoms become evident. 
There appears also to be little doubt that the internal 
administration of sulphur water tends to diminish the toxi- 
city of mercury. Some patients unable to take even small 
doses of mercury without symptoms of mercurialism can 
take this drug in conjunction with sulphur without any 
ill effects.' 

Sulphur waters are supposed to have a specific action in 
chronic lead poisoning, and, in view of the modifying action 
of sulphur on that of mercury, it is possible by analogy that 
such may be the case. It is at least as possible, however, 
that the increased metabolism set up by spa treatment is 
the real agent. A similar specific action is claimed for 
non-sulphurous waters. 

^ In the B.M.J., January 31, 1920, is an interesting note by Capt. E. 
Irving which may throw fresh light not only on the use of sulphur waters 
in mercurial poisoning, but possibly also in lead poisoning. Acting on 
Prof. Gaucher 's theory, he gave teaspoonful doses of sublimed sulphur 
nightly by the mouth in cases of mercurialism induced by the intramuscular 
injection of mercury. He found that not only was mercurialism prevented, 
but cases of already developed stomatitis rapidly cleared up. Prof, 
Gaucher's explanation of the action of sulphur waters in mercury poisoning 
is as follows. Mercury, on absorption into the system, becomes converted 
into a chlor-albuminate-peroxide of sodium and mercury. It is an irritating 
salt, and is not allowed to circulate freely, thereby causing stomatitis and 
other symptoms of irritation. By the action of sulphur, the irritating 
mercury salt is converted into a non-irritating mercury sulphide, which 
circulates freely in the system. The mercury sulphide is easily excreted, 
and is well tolerated. 

The thought suggests itself that possibly lead sulphide may behave 
in similar fashion. 

See also Dr. Morna Rawlins, "Venereal Diseases in Women," B.M.J. , 
.August 7, 1920. 



72 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Toxic Effects.— The long-continued action of sulphides 
is depressant to the heart and to the nerve centres, and is 
believed to stimulate the katabolism of red corpuscles, and 
so cause anaemia. 

Ferrous bicarbonate. — The therapeutic action of iron in such 
minute doses is perhaps doubtful. Possibly the presence 
of an easily decomposable iron salt would tend to minimize 
the katabolic effects of sulphides on the haemoglobin in 
the intestinal capillaries. For the same reason, namely, 
of interaction between the iron salts and the sulphides, 
the beneficial effects of the iron in anaemia would be 
minimized. 

Lithium chloride. — Here, again, the quantities present 
are so very small that it would be rash to attribute 
to them much action without further evidence. Some 
action, however, is by no means impossible (see remarks 
on pages 95, 119, and 233). 

Sodium borate. — The recent discovery of this salt in 
Rachel water is very interesting, and may account for its 
occasional purgative effects. Fortunately the amount 
present is too small to have an irritative effect (see Borate 
Waters, pages 95 and 204). 

Dosage. — The water is given in small doses, gradually 
increased to 8 or 10 ounces, three times a day on an 
empty stomach. It is essential that it should be fresh 
and hot from the spring. The degree of freshness can 
be measured by the temperature, as, after standing and 
cooling, decomposition of the sodium sulphide takes place 
and the water becomes insufferably nauseous. When 
fresh, however, nearly all patients rapidly get to 
tolerate it. 

The caution is given that Rachel water, and indeed all 
hot sulphur waters, should be taken in small doses until 
tolerance is established, and should not be gulped down 
too hurriedly. Neglect of this precaution may lead to 
headache, palpitation, and troublesome flatulence. 

Indications. — The water is used internally in cases of 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 7Z 

gout in which it may be feared that the strong alkahne waters 
of Te Aroha may precipitate an attack ; in cases of arthritis 
due to or exacerbated by intestinal toxcumia ; and in certain 
skin diseases such as acne. It will be seen that, on the whole, 
this water is much more useful for external than for internal 
administration. 

Use of Rachel Water. — While the Rachel water is limited in 
its usefulness internally, as a bath it is for many purposes 
an ideal medium. Owing to its peculiarly bland and silky 
feel it is particularly adapted for swimming-baths, immersion 
baths, and douches. Swimming-baths are of course not 
intended primarily for therapeutic use, but swimming or 
wading in hot water is really an invaluable aid in many 
arthritic cases, as, the weight of the body being removed, 
crippled patients can make voluntary movements of the 
limbs otherwise impossible, more especially as the warm 
water simultaneously relieves pain and makes the stiff 
joints more supple. The abduction of the hip joints and 
the movement of the shoulder joints in swimming are 
especially valuable. 

Immersion baths. — All the effects elsewhere described ' of 
hot baths can be obtained by immersion in Rachel water. 
As a sedative bath at the indifferent temperature the bland 
silicated water is ideal, and in diseases of the skin, in which 
a soothing antiseptic application is required, Rachel water 
is most useful. Where for any purpose a stimulant is 
preferable, the more potent acid waters should be employed. 
It is also largely used as a vehicle for the electric current 
in the electric bath. 

Douches. — It is, however, in douche form that this water 
is most useful, for here its physical properties render it an 
ideal agent. The sodium silicate and bicarbonate make 
the water bland and, in combination with the sebaceous 
secretion of the skin, almost slippery, so that for the com- 
bination of douche and massage known as Aix douche it is 
invaluable. 

1 Vide page 249. 



74 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

In douche massage the force of the water (at Rotorua, 
about 30 lb. to the square inch) materially aids the masseur's 
fingers, and indeed constitutes a form of massage as it 
impinges on the skin. Also, by directing the stream on to 
certain selected areas, the reflex effects described on page 245 
are set up, and these effects can be increased immensely 
by the use of the Scotch douche of alternating hot and cold 
water. When the relief of pain is more especially aimed 
at, or derivative effects on the circulation are desired, 
e.g. in cerebral or hepatic congestion, the revulsive douche 
is used. In this the skin correlated with the part affected 
is treated by the prolonged use of a very hot douche 
followed by the momentary application of a cold one, to 
be followed again if necessary by hot. The water is also in 
constant use as the undercurrent douche in immersion baths, 
being applied under the water by a hose at a higher tempera- 
ture than the bath. Both the force and temperature can 
easily be modified by moving the nozzle nearer to or farther 
from the part treated. This is an invaluable agent in the 
treatment of sciatica. 

Indications for Rachel Baths. — Immersion baths are 
indicated in most cases of skin disease that will stand baths 
at all, except, of course, acutely infective conditions such 
as ringworm. The immersion should be prolonged, and 
special precautions should be taken afterwards to protect 
the skin from undue drying. Obviously, facial cases are 
contra-indicated. Sub-thermal baths in insomnia and 
irritable nervous states are useful. Rachel baths may be 
given for all cases of chronic arthritic diseases in which the 
stronger acid baths are not well tolerated. 

Douche massage is contra-indicated in most acute con- 
ditions, but is invaluable in almost all others for which 
balneological treatment is indicated, and especially in the 
treatment of fibrositis and of adhesions of all sorts, such as 
stiff joints at any stage below that of anch3'losis, adherent 
tendons, after fractures, dislocations, and other injuries, 
wounds, and surgical operations. 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 75 

Through its reflex effects it is invaluable in the treatment 
of atonic conditions of the viscera, and, partly through re- 
lieving these conditions, and partly by direct stimulation 
of the nervous system, it is one of our most efficacious 
weapons in fighting neurasthenia. By its profound stimu- 
lation of local circulation it promotes local metabolism, 
the absorption of exudates, and the regeneration of tissue. 

Acid Sulphur Waters. — In violent contrast to the above 
are the acid sulphur waters. Except that they are highly 
siliceous, the alkaline sulphur waters resemble fairly 
closely the widely distributed sulphur waters of Europe : 
the acid sulphur waters would appear to be without any 
European prototype, the only waters approaching them 
being certain waters in Japan and in the United States. ^ 

The most strongly acid waters of New Zealand rise in 
volcanic White Island,' in the Bay of Plenty — waters far too 
corrosive to use ; the next strongest at Taheke, 12 miles 
from Rotorua ; the next in Whale Island, in the Bay of 
Plenty, then at Ohaewai ; and next come the waters of 
Rotorua. 

We have already discussed (page 30) the probable genesis 
of these waters from an alkaline stock of the Rachel type. 
The springs are neither so plentiful nor so hot as those of the 
alkaline waters, but the water is nevertheless in great 
abundance and is practically a subsoil water under a con- 
siderable area of Rotorua. 

For all practical purposes only three groups of springs are 
utilized, the Postmaster, the Old Priest, and the New Priest, 
and a glance at the table of analyses on page 76 will show that 
these differ from one another in degree rather than in kind. 

The New Priest spring bears a closer resemblance to the 
Postmaster than to the Old Priest, and in point of acidity 
occupies an intermediate position. None of these waters 

1 Amongst others the Iowa spring contains 409 grains of sulphuric 
acid to the gallon and the Oak Orchard springs of New York as much as 
40 per cent, of its total contents. 

^ See page 198, 



76 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

ANALYSES OF ACID WATERS 





Postmaster Spring 


Old PritU Spring 


.Vnr Prifst Spring 




(Analysis 1906). 


(Analysis 1906). 


(Analysis 1906). 




Grains per gallon. 


Grains per gallon. 


Grains per gallon. 


Potassium chloride . 


200 


0-94 


2-68 


Sodium chloride 


889 


703 


15-10 


Sodium sulphate 


14-25 


10-85 


19-94 


Aluminium sulphate . 


15-60 


9-60 


12-38 


Ferrous sulphate 


0-52 


0-06 


1-30 


Calcium sulphate 


625 


6-46 


4-85 


Magnesium sulphate. 


I-9I 


1-68 


0-60 


Silica 


1510 


12-10 


22-82 


Sulphuric acid (free) . 


22-29 


377 


16-80 


Total solids 


8681 


52-49 


96-47 


Gases : free COj 


28-84 


4000 


4-3T 


,, H,S 


13-09 


5-00 
97-49 


1-80 


Total 


128-74 


102-58 


Temperature . 


98° F. to 1 20° F. 


98°F. toio8°F, 


1 30° F. to 1 60° F. 



are used for drinking, but all make baths which have certain 
valuable and unique qualities. 

Electrical Conductivity. — As this may be taken as a measure 
of the number of free ions in a mineral water, its investiga- 
tion is a matter of some importance. ' In the following tables 
a column of water fV inch in diameter was used at a tempera- 
ture of 68° F. Water from the town main was used for 
purposes of comparison, and a 50-volt current passed 
between platinum electrodes. The waters were tested when 
freshly collected, and again after storage. As the Rachel 
water had to be allowed to cool through more than 100° F. 
it was of course not quite strictly fresh. 



Water. 


Distant* between 
electrodes. 


Fresh water, 
current in m.a. 


Tested after four 

weeks" stagnation, 

current in m.a- 


Town main .... 

Rachel water 

Priest water .... 


i in. 

^ in. 


1-5 
17-0 

19-0 


I 
15 
17 



1 The point of complete ionization in an electrolyte is reached when the 
solution contains the molecular weight of the dissolved substance in a 
cubic metre. Thus the molecular weight of NaCl being 58-35, a completely 
dissociated solution would contain 58-35 gram. NaCl per cub. metre. 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 77 

New Priest Baths. — These are housed in the Main Baths, 
and consist of a number of private and several public 
baths. All are supplied with the modern accessories of 
undercurrent and other douches, and all the private baths 
with packs, douches, and so forth. The waters, as we have 
seen, are stronger than the Old Priest waters, but weaker 
than the Postmaster, and are purposely used as free from 
gases as possible. They owe their action therefore entirely 
to their heat and to their contained sulphuric acid, and 
this latter is sufficiently strong to cause an intense and 
long-continued redness of the skin of the bather. The public 
immersion baths, one for men and two reserved for women, 
are kept at fixed temperatures of from ioi° to 104° F. 

Old Priest Baths. — These call for special note. They are 
a series of rude piscinae, in which the bather's feet rest on 
the natural pumice floor, through which the hot acid water 
wells. The temperature varies in different baths, and in the 
same bath from day to day, and is comparatively little 
under control, the limits generally ranging from about 
85° F. to 105° F. In the hotter baths there is a certain 
admixture of clay from the substratum, and a considerable 
deposit of fiocculent sulphur in the bath, so that they appear 
a good deal less inviting than they feel. The coldest bath 
is a thing apart, and has special valuable properties. It 
is crystal clear, greenish in hue, and through its waters 
there is a constant bubbling of gas, principally carbon 
dioxide. 1 

Of special value in those numerous cases requiring a 
subthermal tonic bath, it has the invaluable merit of feeling 
much warmer than it really is. This is due to the fact that 
the indifferent temperature of carbonic acid gas is 75° F., 
while that of water is about 93° to 94° F. (cf. p. 248), and 
that the conducting power of gas is low. It is to this gas 
that the stimulating properties of the bath are largely due, 
though the public having christened it at some time the 

1 The percentage of the gases (Dr. Maclaurin, 191 1) is: CO,,, 84-5; 
HjS, 6-5 ; N, 9-0. 



78 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

" radium bath," the name has stuck and its potency is 
attributed to radium.' 

Postmaster Baths.— The Postmaster baths are situated on 
the lake shore some half-mile away. Open perforce to the 
air on account of the potent fumes, these baths are built, 
like the Priest Baths, over the actual springs, and the bather 
rests on the pumice floor. The waters, however, are very 
much more potent than those of the Priest, as unfortunately 
also are the fumes, and consequently the Postmaster con- 
stitutes at once the most valuable and the most dangerous 
of all the baths at Rotorua. 

Three baths are reserved for men and three for women, 
their temperature varying from about 99° F. to 110° F., 
or even more. The latter and hottest bath approximates 
to the Japanese type, and is especially valuable for local 
treatment, e.g. of the legs. 

The waters well up through the floors of these baths 
accompanied by a considerable amount of gas, principally 
carbonic acid and sulpluiretted hydrogen. As a rule these 
gases are rapidly carried off into the open atmosphere, but 
in certain conditions, especially with a low barometer, they 
are very profuse, and bathing at such times should only 
be undertaken with great caution. Rash bathers, dis- 
regarding the injunctions of the attendant, are frequently 
overcome by the fumes, and have to be removed hastily 
from the bath. Unconsciousness, with stertorous breathing 
and clonic spasm, comes on with startling rapidity, but 
passes off after a few minutes' exposure to fresh air. There 
is some consequent nausea and headache of a transient 
nature, but otherwise little after-results are noticeable 
beyond a very decidedly increased susceptibility to the fumes, 
so that a bather, once gassed, should not attempt the bath 
again for several weeks. The bath can be used for full 
immersion or locally, and in two distinct ways : (i) a short 
immersion, a very high temperature, and a following cold 
shower, especially if followed up by a sun-bath, cause 

* The radio-activity of the water and gas is shown at pages 90-92. 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 79 

active hyperaemia (vide p. 249) and distinctly tonic effects ; 
(2) a longer immersion at a somewhat lower temperature, 
followed by a douche of warm alkaline sulphur water, is 
used where relief of pain and stiffness is the most urgent 
indication. 

In local application it is possible to utilize both methods. 
Thus a limb may be immersed, say, twenty minutes to get 
the maximum passive hypersemia of Bier, while the body 
as a whole is treated by the tonic first method of a short 
immersion. 

Physiological Action of Priest and Postmaster Baths.— 
The physiological action of the Priest and Postmaster 
baths, both of which contain nascent sulphuric acid and 
carbonic acid gas, is interesting. 

On entering the subthermal Priest bath there is first 
a sensation of chilliness, which gradually becomes replaced 
by a glowing warmth, due to the stimulation of bubbles 
of carbonic acid which collect on the skin in a fine layer ; 
the skin becomes bright scarlet from active hypercemia, 
and there is vigorous contraction of the cutaneous unstriped 
muscles. Thus, in the male bather, the contraction of 
the dartos may be so vigorous after a few minutes as to 
become painful. This stage closely resembles the reactive 
stage (page 244) of the cold bath, but is more lasting. 
Practically the effects of a Nauheim bath result— a stimula- 
tion of the peripheral circulation, of the " skin heart"— 
the dilute sulphuric acid replacing the brine. 

If now the blood be examined, it will be found that there 
is the same increased blood-count in the cutaneous circula- 
tion that we have elsewhere noted after a cold bath (see 
page 244). 

In the hot Priest bath and in the Postmaster bath the 
preliminary cold stage is of course absent, and stage two 
of the hot bath (page 253) of active hyperaemia is speedily 
reached, and is very definitely prolonged. This is a tonic 
stage, and shows the characteristic increased blood-count. 
After more prolonged immersion we get stage three, that 









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82 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

of relaxation, with relief of pain and stiffness, relaxation 
of muscle, passive hyperaemia, and diminishing blood-count. 

The most essential and characteristic feature of these baths, 
however, is the stage of active hypercemia. Superadded to 
the pain-relievifig effects of a hot bath we have the tonic effects 
of a cold bath, and the stage of reaction, of comparatively 
short duration in the cold bath, is, in the hot acid one, com- 
paratively prolonged. 

Blood Count after Priest Batlis. — As we have already 
seen, the reactive stage of a cold bath is accompanied by an 
increase both of red and of white corpuscles in the blood 
circulating in the skin. This effect is increased by any 
measure which increases the vigour of the reactive stage, 
such as salt in the water, douching, massage, or vigorous 
muscular exercise. It is more marked in young, healthy 
adults than in older or asthenic subjects, and may be held 
as a measure of the reactive power of the individual, and 
also of the benefit that he has obtained from the bath. 

Noting the extreme cutaneous hyperaemia that results 
from a Priest bath and its comparatively lasting nature, I 
examined the blood in a number of patients at varying 
intervals after bathing. The results showed that, in most 
cases in which skin hyperaemia was marked, the blood- 
count was increased. From the experiments of Winternitz 
and others one would expect the increase to be most marked 
in the part of the body actually immersed, and to make 
the test more severe the blood was accordingly withdrawn 
from the lobe of the ear, a part not immersed. Also, 
as some doubt was at that time expressed about the efficacy 
of the New Priest baths which had only recently been intro- 
duced, the test was made in one of them. The bath selected 
was the Public Priest Bath, a large immersion bath kept 
at a temperature of 104° F. and capable of accommodating 
a dozen or more bathers. With so large a body of water, 
a constant temperature was more easily maintained and 
disturbing factors eliminated. The apparatus used was 
the Thoma-Zeiss chamber, with Hay em's fluid as the medium 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 83 

for the red and 5 per cent, methylene-blue-acetic-acid for 
the white. To complete the table, haemoglobin estimations 
should have been shown ; but as these were unfortunately 
not made in the earlier cases of the series, it was felt better 
to omit them, as a limited number might be misleading. 
Only cases of a consecutive series were included, and no 
selection of cases was made beyond the fact that all were 
invalids. For purposes of comparison, one or two tests 
were made from other baths and temperatures, such as the 
Rachel bath at 102° F. and with plain water. It is note- 
worthy that some of the latter gave positive results. It will 
be observed that the majority of the patients were enfeebled 
rheumatoid cases with very poor reactive powers, so that 
the results recorded, while not always striking, were en- 
couraging for such an asthenic class. 

Comparative Value of the Old and New Acid Baths.— 
As regards the baths supplied by Rachel water, there is 
practically no difference between the two establishments, 
except in point of equipment and of comfort : in regard 
to the Priest baths there is all the difference in the world. 
At the New baths the Priest water is stronger in acidity and 
freer from gases ; its temperature can be regulated exactly, 
and it can be used in the form of undercurrent douches. 
All these points are extremely valuable and constitute these 
most useful baths, more especially for the relief of pain and 
stiffness. Unless, however, the time of immersion is short, 
they are not particularly tonic. 

The Old Priest baths and the Postmaster have certain 
drawbacks which are inherent and cannot be altogether 
removed. Thus the temperature is only roughly under 
control, obnoxious gases are a constant source of trouble, 
there are no undercurrent douches, and, bathing in the 
actual spring, the bather does not get either privacy or 
water untouched by others. 

There are, however, very great compensatory advantages. 
The waters of the Old Baths possess all that quality 
of "freshness" the importance of which is elsewhere 



84 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

dwelt on/ and they contain free ionized carbonic acid gas. 
The batli, too, is taken in the open air, the dressing- boxes 
alone being under cover. These factors combined render 
these baths very much more ionic than the more sophisticated 
New Baths, and in some cases they are effectual in relieving 
pain and stiffness in which the other baths have failed. 
For these reasons they are to be preferred to the New Baths 
in all cases of debility, such, for instance, as of rheumatoid 
arthritis or of anaemia, bearing always in mind, however, 
that the risks connected with the inhalation of sulphuretted 
hydrogen are to be guarded against. 

As a general rule, of course, the more debilitated the 
patient, the cooler should be the bath, and the tonic bath 
par excellence is the Old Priest bath known as the " Cham- 
pagne " or " Radium " bath. When it can be used, that 
is for robust subjects only, the Postmaster bath is very much 
more effectual than the Priest, and for the treatment of 
chronic arthritis there is no bath anywhere which can surpass 
it, and probably none that can equal it. 

Indications for the Use of Acid Waters.— The Priest bath 
is invaluable in all chronic arthritic conditions, in " lum- 
bago " and other forms of fibrositis, in sciatica, neuralgias, 
and in all forms of pain and stiffness due to traumatic 
adhesions. The cooler effervescent bath is more especially 
indicated where a tonic effect is required, such as in 
rheumatoid arthritis, toxic arthritis, and some forms of 
neurasthenia ; also in ancemic cases. For cases of wc.ik 
heart muscle it acts as a mild Nauheim bath, but special 
supervision should be ordered in these cases as the bath is 
not properly equipped for this purpose. 

The Postmaster bath is used in the same class of case as 
the hotter Priest baths, but is more efficacious. It is 
also invaluable as a depictive of congested internal organs, 
and in defective circulation not due to heart disease. In 
short applications it is an excellent general tonic measure. 

Contra - indications. — Both these baths are contra - 

* Page 230. 



k 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 85 

indicated in very feeble patients, in most heart cases, and 
in skin diseases. Many persons with apparently normal 
skins are unable to use these baths, especially the Postmaster, 
on account of the supervention of a very irritable and 
obstinate erythematous rash. In the same way a slight 
abrasion may develop into an intractable ulcer, reminding 
one, in its obstinate resistance to treatment, of a mild 
X-ray burn. 

Elderly people with pronounced atheroma or sclerosis 
should avoid taking the hotter baths, and especially the 
Postmaster, and should take special precautions before 
entering the bath.^ As compared with men, women show 
a curious intolerance of the Postmaster bath. 

Vapour Baths.— The hot-vapour room, Russian bath, is 
used as a preliminary of the Aix massage douche. The 
patient, after a preliminary drink of water and a spray of 
hot Rachel water, sits for a few minutes in the vapour room 
(temperature from iio° F. to 120° F.). Here his tempera- 
ture rapidly rises, thereby hastening metabolism, profuse 
perspiration is induced, and the tissues are relaxed in 
preparation for the masseur. 

The vapour cabinets at the Blue bath are supplied with 
steam either from the Malfroy geysers or from a sulphur 
cavern - under the bath. In the former case the steam is 
impregnated with a large amount of sulphuretted hydrogen 
and a small amount of sulphurous acid, in the latter it is 
heavily laden with sulphurous acid. This latter gas is 
readily decomposed in contact with air and moisture, and 

^ Either by applying cold to the head before entering, and while in, 
the bath, or by pouring very hot water over the nape of the neck. In 
either case they should enter the bath gradually. 

2 This solfatara was unearthed when excavations were made for the 
swimming-bath. Of late years its action has been very erratic, probably 
due to leakage of the water from the swimming-bath into the sulphur cavern. 
As an example of the engineering difficulties encountered at Rotorua, 
it may be mentioned that, while this bath encountered a solfatara, the 
Duchess swimming-bath rests on a foundation of nearly boiling mud, 
and everywhere metal pipes are eaten through, and all paints with a lead 
foundation are impossible. 



86 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

nascent sulphur is deposited in a fine layer over the body 
of the patient. The inside of the cabinet, and the flues con- 
veying the vapour, are coated with beautiful flower-like 
crystals of sulphur, which may reach a length of two inches 
or more. 

The bath results in an intense reddening of the skin, 
active hypenTmia as well as passive taking place, and a 
certain amount of sulphur apparently is absorbed by the 
unbroken skin, as is evidenced by the evolution of sulphides 
in the sweat for some days afterwards. Of course special 
precautions have to be taken to avoid the chance inhalation 
of any of the vapour, as it is intensely toxic. 

The bath may also be used locally, one or more limbs 
being inserted into the cabinet as in the well-known Ber- 
thollet system. 

Indications. — A vapour bath is given when it is desired 
to increase the action of the sweat glands. Thus, in the 
form of the Russian bath, it is given almost as a routine 
measure in arthritic cases to increase elimination of toxins ; 
in obesity it is especially indicated. 

The vapour cabinet at the Blue bath obviates the dis- 
comfort of inspiring a hot steamy atmosphere, and, if the 
sulphur dioxide vapour is used, there is considerable absorp- 
tion of sulphur, so that the bath is specially indicated in gout, 
metallic poisoning, and syphilitic cases in which it is desired 
to promote the metabolism of mercury. In cases of acne 
it is sometimes used with great success, but its action is 
uncertain. 

Locally it is extremely useful as an aid to overcoming 
adhesions in a stiff joint and for relief of pain. 

The physiological action of these local baths is : increased 
local temperature with increased local metabolism ; local 
passive hyperaemia, with increased phagocytic activity, 
effects which are now familiar through the teaching of Bier ; 
and local active hyperaemia from the stimulation of sulphur- 
ous acid and nascent sulphur, with the regenerative effects of 
increased arterial supply. 



THE SULPHUR SPAS S7 

Contra- indications. — The complete vapour bath is contra- 
indicated in febrile cases, cardiac weakness, and advanced 
arterio-sclerosis or renal disease. 

Mud Baths. — The material used is the dried clay deposit 
collected from the hot mud springs of the district, liquefied 
and heated again by steam. The mud springs and mud 
volcanoes, which are common in the district, but especially 
numerous in the Arikikapakapa reserve, are caused, as we 
have already seen, by the passage of steam through the 
clay substratum which underlies the pumice and sand of 
the Rotorua basin. 

The material, resembling fuller's earth, is homogeneous, 
free from grit, and, when dried and powdered, distinctly 
greasy to the feel. In the fresh state, in its pultaceous 
condition in the springs, it is highly acid. In composition 
it consists principally of silicates with a large admixture 
of free sulphur, and is somewhat radio-active. It will 
be observed that the mud baths of Rotorua are essen- 
tially different from the peat baths so much used in 
Europe, and closely resemble the " fango " baths of Italy, 
such as those of Acqui and Battaglia, or the mud baths 
of Dax. 

The mud is used in two forms, either locally, when it is 
applied as a thick poultice, or in the full reclining bath 
with a consistency varying from pea-soup to thin gruel. 
The bath is followed by a circular needle douche of Rachel 
water, when the mud readily washes off,i and a hot 
pack. 

The temperature can of course be varied at the dis- 
cretion of the prescriber, but for the relief of pain and stiffness 
a temperature of 104° F. or 105° F. is desirable, while as 
a sedative measure in certain skin diseases a much lower 
temperature is generally used. Owing to the low conductivity 
of the medium, mud can be borne of a higher temperature 
than water, as a comparatively insulating layer of mud 
rapidly forms around the bather. The skin is quickly 

1 In skin diseases it is sometimes allowed to dry on. 



88 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

reddened by the free acid and free sulphur present, 
and to this is added the demulcent effect of the 
bland siliceous material. The bath thus acts as an 
alterative to the skin, and has marked pain-relieving 
properties. 

Indications. — For the relief of pain and stiffness in gouty 
and rheumatic cases, in which acid baths are found too 
irritating to the skin, or where purely sedative effects are 
desired, the mud baths are extremely useful. Personal 
idiosyncrasy, or perhaps some unrecognized peculiarity 
in the phase of the disease, would also appear to come in, 
for many patients experience immediate relief from a mud 
bath, while apparently identical cases do better with a 
Priest bath. 

The mud, too, would appear to have a specific action in 
many skin cases, especially psoriasis and dry chronic eczona. 
Remembering the antiseptic properties of both sulphur and 
the silicates, and the bland physical properties of the latter, 
it is not surprising that the mud should form an ideal 
application. 

ANALYSIS OF VOLCANIC MUD 



(i) Direct from hot spring, 
(ii) Dried mud stored at baths. 



Silica 

Alumina . 

Iron oxide 

Titanium dioxide 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Alkalies . 

Free sulphur 

Sulphuric anhydride 

Water and organic matter 



Also sample (i) contained : 
Gold 

Silver 



(i) 


(ii) 


61-65 


48-52 


21-84 


28-45 


0-56 


0-40 


0-40 


040 


0-30 


040 


0-20 


023 


0-50 


nil 


0-85 


o-o8 


2-80 


o-8i 


IIO5 


20-46 



100-15 



9975 



0-5 gr. per ton. 
7-0 grs. „ „ 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 89 

For the sake of the comfort of the patient, the mud 
is generally washed off after a twenty minutes' immersion, 
but frequently it is left on to dry and form a protective 
coating. 

In poultice form, as a " local mud bath," it is useful in 
applications to single joints, such as the knee. 

Like other baths which cause an artificial pyrexia, it is 
sometimes used with great success in the treatment of 
obesity. 

Contra-indications. — The bath is sedative and rather 
debilitating, and must be used with caution in patients 
already debilitated by disease, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, 
or where there is a tendency to cardiac failure. Those 
suffering from palpitation in a hot bath, and they are many, 
should avoid covering the precordium in the bath,' and 
in the subsequent pack should have a cold compress over 
the heart. Like all other forms of bath treatment, it 
is, of course, an unsuitable medium for treating disease 
of the skin of the face. 

Radio-activity of the Waters. — As is discussed elsewhere 
(page 233), it has been suggested that one of the possible 
factors in the efficacy of a mineral water, as distinguished 
from plain water, is radio-activity, or perhaps, as plain 
water may be at least as radio-active as mineral water, it 
would be more correct to put it that radio-activity may 
be one of the factors concerned in the quality of" fresh- 
ness " in water. Whether that is so or not, certain it 
is that water that has lost its freshness has also lost the 
bulk of its radio-activity, unless it has been artificially 
activated. 

The reason of this is manifest. We are dealing, not so 
much with a solution of radium, as of its short-lived descen- 
dant, the emanation, whose decay period is about five 

1 The action is partly due to pressure, but is mainly a skin reflex. 
Warmth quickens and weakens, cold slows and strengthens the pulse, 
when applied over the heart. A cold precordial compress acts like 
digitalis. 



90 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

and a half days.' Whether or not the small amount of 
radio-activity present in mineral waters is therapeutically 
potent is a question which cannot yet be answered with 
any degree of confidence. Many clinical observers, including 
some well-known investigators, have maintained that it 
is ; on the other hand, no less an authority than Professor 
Rutherford has said that " it seemed to him that proof was 
lacking that the beneficial effect of (mineral) waters was due 
to radium." 

In regard to the mineral waters of Rotorua, one might 
naturally anticipate that the excessively high temperatures 
of most of the springs would conduce to a very rapid loss 
of emanation, and, as a matter of fact, it has been found that 
their average radio-activity is low, much lower than that 
of the cold springs of the same district. This fact would 
rather lead to the conclusion that radio-activity is not an 
essential, and probably not an important, constituent of 
the quality of " freshness." 

An examination of a number of waters was made by 
Dr. Maclaurin in 191 1, which showed that their radio-activity 
was low as compared with that of many well-known waters 
in other parts of the world. The results of his examination 
of the waters, volcanic mud, and sinter deposits is given 
below in tabular form. 

The following tables show the activity as expressed in 
billionths of a gramme of radium per c.c. 

TABLE I. RADIO-ACTIVITY OF GASES 



Source. 


Location. 


Temperature 
(Centigrade). 


Activity. 

Grams X 10 

per c.c. 


Old Priest Bath . 

Gas Spring in Lake Rotorua 

Waitangi Spring 


Rotorua 
Roto-ehu 


" 


0-170 
0697 
0021 



1 For the influence of radio-activity on the suspension of colloids 
V. page 233. 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 



91 



TABLE II. RADIO-ACTIVITY OF WATERS 



Source. 


Location. 


Temperature 
(Centigrade). 


Activity. 


Rachel Spring ^ . • . 


Rotorua 


90° to 100° 


0-0920 


,.2. 


1 1 


90° to 100° 


0-0890 


Old Priest Bath i 


t> 


38° 


0-1310 


2 
If 1 1 > » 


it 


38° 


0-1090 


Postmaster Bath 2 


II 


40° 


o-oioo 


New Priest Spring ^ . 


i» 


40° 


0-0320 


New Priest Spring (from tap 








in bath-house) 


II 


40° 


0-0250 


Malfroy Geyser . 


,, 


100° 


0-0015 


Boiling Lake — Spout Bath . 


Whakarewarewa 


100° 


o-oi6o 


Hamurana ^ (not mineral 








water) .... 


Rotorua 


"•5° 


0-3490 


Fairy Spring 1 (not mineral 








water) .... 


,, 


14° 


0-3090 


Waitangi Spring 


Roto-ehu 


40° 


OOIIO 


Champagne Pool ^ 


Wai-o-tapu 


72° 


0-1470 


1 


Wairakei 


100° 


o-oo8o 


2 


* 1 


100° 


o-oioo 


Great Wairakei Geyser ^ 




100° 


0-0050 


Witch's Cauldron 2 . 


Taupo 


100° 


0-2040 


No. 2 Spring 


Te Aroha 


38° 


0-0260 


No. 6 ,, 




35° 


0-0150 


No. 8 „ 




42° 


O-OIOO 


No. 15 ., ... 




50° 


0-0310 


No. 20 ,, 




18° 


0-0560 


No. 22 ,, 




•21° 


0-1300 



TABLE III. RADIO-ACTIVITY OF MUD USED IN MUD BATHS 



Source. 


Location. 


Temperature 
(Centigrade). 


Activity. 


Mud from boiling spring 
Mud in use in baths . 


Rotorua 


100° 

Cold 


0-091 
0-185 



It will be noted that the highest activity was found 
in the two cold fresh-water springs, and the next highest 
in the subthermal Priest bath and its gases. The mud in 
use at the baths showed a higher activity than that collected 
fresh from the spring. The former consists of the dry 
deposit collected from the margins of a boiling mud spring, 
artificially made pultaceous by steam. It is probable that 

1 Waters examined in the field. 

2 Waters examined on a subsequent investigation eight months later 
in the laboratory by a more sensitive electroscope of the Joly type. 



92 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

this unexpected result was due to the chance selection of 
samples. 

The waters, and also the sinters deposited round boiling 
springs and geysers, were then examined for their actual 
radium content, apart from emanation. 



TABLE IV. RADIUM CONTENT OF WATERS 



Source. 



Rachel Spring 
Old Priest Bath 
Hamurana 
Waitangi 
Champagne Pool 

If t f 

Great Wairakei Geyser 

Witch's Cauldron 

No. 2 Spring 

No. 6 

No. 8 

No. 15 ,, 

No. 20 



Comparing th 



Location. 


Activity. 


Rotorua 


00004 


f * 


00003 
nil 


Wai-o-tapu 
Wairakei 


nil 
00002 
00003 


T 


0-0005 



Te Aroha 



0-0005 
0-0009 
00002 
ooooi 
0-0012 
00005 



is table with Table H. Dr. Maclaurin points 
out that only a very small part of the emanation found in 
any of the samples is due to radium contained by the waters. 
Sinters.— It will be recalled that radio-activity was 
discovered in the calcareous and other deposits round some 
of the European springs before it was detected in the actual 
waters. 

The same relative radium richness is found in the sinters, 
and is much greater than that of any of the corresponding 
springs from which the sinter was deposited. 



TABLE v. RADIUM CONTENT OF SINTERS 



Source. 



Location. 



Rachel Spring. 

Boiling Lake . 

Waikite Geyser 

Small Geyser . 

Champagne Pool 

Prince of Wales' Feathers Geyser 



Radium. 

Grams x 10 

per gram 



— 12 



Rotorua 
Whakarewarewa 

Waimangu 
Wairakei 



0-72 
I 03 
0-41 

1-55 
0-46 
o-gi 




< 
►J 



< 
O 



o 



CHAPTER VI {Continued) 
the sulphur spas 
Hanmer 

What Rotorua is to the North Island, Hanmer is to the 
South. While by no means the only hot springs in the 
South Island, those of Hanmer are the only ones of any 
magnitude at present easily accessible, and they have an 
especial importance in that they can be reached from the 
most populous centres of the South without, what is to many 
invalids often a serious drawback, the discomforts of a 
sea passage. 

Access. — The principal route, and the only one practicable 
for invalids, is by train from Christchurch to Culverden, 
a distance of 69 miles, and thence 24 miles by the regular 
motor-car service to Hanmer. 

Accommodation. — There are several boarding-houses and 
private hotels, some of which are very comfortable, while 
for hospital patients there is the Government Sanatorium. 
During the war a large hospital was built for the accom- 
modation of wounded soldiers. 

Season. — The baths are open all the year round, but the 
season is from October to May. The winter, however, holds 
out many attractions to those who need bracing up, and 
are yet not too invalided to endure the keen frosty air. 

Climate. — Situated in an elevated plateau 1,220 feet above 
sea-level, rimmed round by high mountains, and shut off 
by the central mountainous backbone of the island from 
the moist west winds, Hanmer possesses in its climate a 
curative factor scarcely less valuable than its mineral 

93 



94 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

waters. The air is comparatively dry, absolutely pure, and 
has just that touch of keenness in it which exhilarates and 
lessens fatigue — in a word, is " bracing." The prevailing 
wind is from the north-west, a fine weather wind, but often 
rising to a gale between the months of September and 
December. The wettest months of the year are August 
and September, whilst the autumn months, and particularly 
May and June, are generally fine. 

In the winter there are very many bright and brilliantly 
sunny days, with the snow-wrapped mountains sparkling 
in the sun, warm in the sheltered valley below, but with a 
keen frost at night. 

The Springs. — A considerable number of springs arise within 
the Sanatorium grounds, though all appear to have a common 
origin. The temperature of these springs varies from ioo° F. 
to Ii8° F., and the flow is, for New Zealand, comparatively 
small, about 40,000 gallons a day. From them, there is 
a fairly copious evolution of carburetted hydrogen gas 
(methane) mingled with a little sulphuretted hydrogen. At 
one time the whole of this gas was collected and utilized 
for lighting and cooking purposes at the Sanatorium ; 
now, however, none is drawn from the bathing- pools during 
the hours of their occupation, and the surplus gas escaping 
from the springs is alone utilized. 

In 1912, to augment the supply of water, a bore was put 
down, and a very copious flow at 120° F. was obtained, thus 
enabling the activities of the spa to be increased. 

The Waters. — The mineral waters were formerly classified 
as sulphuretted saline, but the analysis of 1912 showed the 
presence of hitherto unsuspected borates, and they are here 
classified also as borated waters (cf. page 203). They are 
used both for drinking and bathing purposes, but mainly 
for the latter. 

In composition they are feebly saline and contain 2 grains 
of sodium sulphide to the gallon, with a little alkaline 
carbonate, so that their action is that of the alkaline saline 
and sulphur waters (cf. pages 67-72). They also contain a 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 95 

little lithium. The amount is little more than half a grain 
to the gallon, but, as explained elsewhere (vide page 233), in 
ionized solution, such as fresh mineral water, one can by 
no means always judge the activity of a water by its gross 
chemical constitution. Very conflicting views are held as 
to the value of lithium. While some authorities regard 
it as a specific in gout, others aver that it is not only 
useless, but that it irritates the stomach and acts as a 
general depressant.^ 

Luff ^ says : " The chief objection to the lithium salts is 
their greater toxicity and depressing action on the heart 
as compared with potassium salts. They consequently have 
to be given in such small doses that it is doubtful whether 
they possess any remedial effect." It will be noted that 
both these objections are overcome by its employment in an 
ionized mineral water, for the dose is too small to be irritant, 
but is at the same time more potent pharmacologically on 
account of its ionization. 

There is, at any rate, evidence of its value when intro- 
duced through the skin by electrolysis, and it is highly 
recommended for this purpose in gout by Leduc and 
others. With lithium chloride at the anode, lithium is 
driven in, and the uric acid ion may be found in the 
electrode. 

The sodium borate, however, is the most active ingredient 
of these waters. For a full discussion of the action of borated 
waters the reader is referred to page 204 ; suffice it here, 
that, while adding to the value of the waters in certain 
baths, the borates detract from them for drinking pur- 
poses, as taken in any quantity they act as gastro-intestinal 
irritants. 

The waters therefore should be drunk in small doses 
only; up to about 6 ounces, and under medical super- 
vision. 

1 Murrell, Clin. Journal, May 19, 1909 ; and Fenner, Lancet, December 19, 
1908. 

2 Hutchinson and Collier's Index of Treatment. 



96 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 



ANALYSIS (1912) 



Sodium chloride 
Sodium borate 
Sodium silicate 
Sodium sulphide . 
Sodium bicarbonate 
Potassium chloride 
Lithium chloride . 
Ammonium chloride 
Calcium bicarbonate 
Ferrous bicarbonate 

Total solids 



Grains per gallon. 

5275 

17-57 
3-86 

1-45 
2-71 
0-17 
047 
I 09 

1-59 
002 



8 1 -68 



Carbon dioxide (free) ..... 5-32 
Carburetted hydrogen, free effervescence. 
Temperature, 100° to 120° F. in different springs. 

GASES FROM THE WATERS (1912-13) 



iSIethane 
Carbon dioxide 
Oxygen 
Nitrogen 



Per cent. 

92-31 

o-o6 

050 

7-13 

loooo 



Baths. — It will be seen from the foregoing that the waters 
of Hanmer are more suited for baths than for drinking 
purposes, and indeed their soft, bland, antiseptic nature 
makes them peculiarly fitted for this purpose, especially 
as prolonged immersion baths in certain skin diseases and 
as the Plombieres douche (cf. p. 68). 

As at Rotorua, the baths may be divided broadly into 
two classes, the natural and artificial, both with their own 
peculiar advantages and drawbacks. ^ The former are 
excavations over the site of actual springs, with concrete 
sides, a grated floor to allow of the free passage of mineral 
water and gases, and an awning overhead to protect from 
sun or rain. Such are the two " swimming-pools," one 
for men and one for women, oval concrete baths some 

^ For a discussion of the comparative merits of these two types of baths 
see page 83. 




FiG. 58.— A BATH-HOUSE. HANMER. 




Fig. 59.— queen MARY'S HOSPITAL, HAXMER. 



96J 



.»^' 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 9/ 

30 feet long and 4^ feet deep. These baths were formerly 
maintamed by their springs at a temperature of from 90° F. 
to 97° F., and, though useful as subthermal baths and for 
recreative purposes, were too cool for most arthritic cases. 
The greatly increased amount of water now available from 
the bore, however, has enabled the installation of under- 
current douches at a high temperature, which have not only 
greatly increased the temperature of the baths, but have also 
increased the scope of their therapeutic potentialities. 

In addition the gas which formerly was withdrawn from 
the pools is now allowed to bubble freely through the water ; 
there is thus more stimulant action on the skin, and, on account 
of the lower indifferent temperature of gases as compared 
with that of water, the apparent temperature of the bath 
is increased. In the other type of baths the water is led 
from the springs in pipes in the usual way. In addition to 
several step-down baths of the Roman pattern there are 
some 22 ordinary shallow immersion baths. These are 
fitted with hot undercurrent douches and cold showers, are 
roomy and comfortable, and the temperature can of course 
be varied to suit the needs of the bather. Special baths 
and towels are reserved for patients suffering from disease 
of the skin. 

Swimming-bath. — A very fine bath, originally erected as 
a cold fresh- water swimming-bath, has been converted 
into a tepid mineral-water bath. Apart from purposes of 
recreation, a warm swimming-bath affords invaluable 
exercise to many patients too crippled to walk but not too 
crippled to wade or even swim. 

Massage and Electrical Department. — A system of douche- 
massage, a combination of the familiar Aix and Vichy types, 
closely resembling that in use at Rotorua, is available, with 
circular needle baths^ hot vapour cabinets, packs, etc. 

In the dry-massage department treatment is given under 
medical prescription only, and may be combined with the 
usual faradic and galvanic applications, or with electric baths. 

Inhalation. — The present arrangements for inhaling the 

7 



98 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW Zr:ALANU 

vapours of the water are decidedly primitive, and consist 
merely of pipes leading from a reservoir over a hot spring 
into the open air. Patients seated above the reservoir can 
thus inhale the steam, which consists only of simple hot- 
water vapour and a slight admixture of the gases, the salts 
of the water of course not arising with the steam. Owing, 
however, to the minute subdivision of the water, this vapour 
penetrates far into the bronchial tubes, and is not arrested 
in the upper air-passages as it would be in an ordinary spray. 
It thus exercises a bland sedative action on the mucous 
membranes, and tends to liquefy the bronchial secretions. 

Radio-activity. — No systematic examination has so far 
been made of the waters of Hanmer. A preliminary rough 
examination that I made in 1914 indicated that their 
activity was comparatively slight. 

Hill-climbing.— A large proportion of those who resort 
to Hanmer come rather for rest and change than " to take 
the waters," but those who are seriously taking a course 
of baths should observe some caution in the matter of over- 
strenuous exercise. In many cases, during either part or 
the whole of a course, rest is absolutely essential, and serves 
to counterbalance the fatigue induced by hot baths ; but fre- 
quently, indeed in the majority of cases, a certain amount 
of exercise is highly beneficial. For those persons, otherwise 
in good health, who are merely suffering from the effects 
of too sedentary a life, the exercise may take the form of 
walks, of ordinary outdoor sports, or of mountain climbing, 
care being taken, of course, not to attempt too much at 
first ; but for those suffering from actual organic disease, 
exercise, while equally beneficial, must be much more care- 
fully graduated. Many cases of enfeebled heart, of anasmia, 
of obesity, and of constipation will benefit by a judicious 
course of hill climbing, such, for instance, as is afforded by 
the slopes of Conical Hill, which seems to have been con- 
structed by nature expressly for this purpose ; but all 
patients with organic disease should avoid this method 
except under the strictest medical supervision. 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 99 

Cases Suitable for Treatment. — The baths are indicated in 
the usual chronic arthritic diseases, and in the local manifesta- 
tions of these diseases, such as sciatica, lumbago, and certain 
forms of neuralgia and neuritis. For cases specially requiring 
the more elaborate forms of treatment, while douche- 
massage electrical treatment and so forth may be obtained, 
the equipment is much less complete than that at Rotorua, 
and all cases of disease of the central nervous system 
requiring special re-educative and co-ordinating exercises, 
and those of heart weakness needing resistance exercises, 
should, for the present at any rate, be sent preferably to 
Rotorua. Patients suffering from true rheumatoid arthritis 
(cf. p. 140) are likely to receive benefit from the combination 
of the bracing climate and balneological treatment, and 
many do better here than at Rotorua. The same remark 
applies to many cases of ancemia, nervous exhaustion, and 
insomnia. In regard to insomnia, it is obvious that the 
cause must first be removed, but that done, the habit 
remains, and a sojourn at a spa of moderate altitude, com- 
bined with a course of moderately warm baths, may be 
availing. Certain digestive troubles, such, for instance, as 
atonic dyspepsia and constipation, will do well with a 
combination of massage-douche, electrical treatment, exer- 
cises, and possibly small doses of the water by the mouth. 
Here, again, while the bracing climate and the treatment 
assist the cure and stimulate the appetite, it must be remem- 
bered that the increased appetite may have to be restrained 
at first in the dyspeptic, while the diet of course must be 
carefully regulated in quality. 

Certain skin diseases, notably chronic eczema and mild 
cases of psoriasis, are usually benefited by prolonged im- 
mersion baths. It is possible that the mild antiseptic 
action of the sodium borate may be of value in such cases. 

Convalescents from acute diseases will find the pure, bracing 
upland air markedly invigorating, but must be careful 
to avoid too hot or too prolonged baths. Stiff joints and 
muscles after injury or operation will be rendered more 



100 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

supple by a course of baths, especially douche-massage. In 
regard to chronic lead-poisoning and the secondary lesions 
ensuing therefrom, a good deal of benefit is likely to result 
from treatment, but this, I take it, is due to spa treatment 
as such rather than to any specific action of the waters. 

As already noted, borax would appear to possess some 
specific action in the reduction of weight in obesity and in 
improving diabetics, but the toxic effect of the salt when 
pushed to the necessary degree would appear to make the 
treatment somewhat risky. 

Contra-indications. — It must be borne in mind that 
Hanmer is, for most part of the year, a quiet and restful 
resort rather than a gay centre, and should not be recom- 
mended to patients who are unhappy when divorced from 
the pleasures and excitements of town life. Also it is some- 
what isolated, and serious cases of organic disease should 
not lightly be sent there. Cases of severe heart disease or 
with advanced degenerative changes in the arteries may 
be better suited by a place at lower altitude, and the same 
applies to emphysema and renal disease, though the rule 
is by no means invariable. It is almost unnecessary to 
repeat the warning that acute cases of any kind should not 
be sent, for this applies to all mineral- water health resorts ; 
spa treatment is for chronic and subacute stages only. 

The Government Sanatorium. — This institution is intended 
primarily for patients of the hospital class, and is in charge 
of a Resident Medical Officer, to whom application for 
admission, supported by a medical certificate as to fitness 
for mineral-water treatment, must be forwarded, and by 
whom patients are also examined before admission. 

Wai-o-t.apu 

Wai-o-tapu, 21 miles from Rotorua, on the Taupo road, 
boasts an enormous number of springs, some of which have 
an equally enormous outflow. At present the place can 
hardly be termed a spa at all It consists of one country 





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Fig. 6i.— the "DEVIL'S BRIDGE," WAI-O-TAPU. 
This is a natural arch of silica bridging boiling horrors below. 




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THE SULPHUR SPAS 101 

hotel set in the midst of a veritable inferno of steaming 
sulphurous springs ; and on a damp day, when every puff 
of steam shows up, the traveller may well wonder how it 
can ever be approached at all. Even beyond its immediate 
confines there is abundant evidence of fierce thermal 
activity. One approaches, past Maunga Kakaramea, or 
Rainbow Mountain, a volcanic peak of variegated clay, 
red and yellow, purple and white, with vivid green pools of 
mineral water at its base ; in the tea-tree scrub the steam 
curls lazily from numerous hidden pools of boiling mud, 
while in the background, high aloft, puffs of steam issue 
from the sides of Maunga Onga-Onga, suggesting irresistibly 
the smoke of well-concealed guns. On the plain beyond, 
though hidden from sight, runs an actual river of hot water, 
its course marked by a thin line of vapour. 
Access. — By road from Rotorua or Taupo. 
Climate.— The climate resembles that of Rotorua, but is 
more bracing, and distinctly colder in winter. 

The Waters.— No waters at present are used for drinking 
purposes, and indeed, as already explained, Wai-o-tapu 
is rather a tourist resort than a spa. The springs are not 
only huge in output, but varied in constitution. Only a 
small proportion of these has yet been analysed, and already 
at least four different types have been shown to exist, 
though all are sulphuretted. 

{a) There is a large group characterized by feeble minerali- 
zation, and containing a small quantity of sodium chloride, 
of which the " Roadman's Bath" may be taken as a type 
(for analysis see p. 102). 

(b) Another subclass, of which the Champagne Pool is the 
principal example, is richer in salts, and, in addition, con- 
tains large amounts of free carbonic acid gas (analysis, p. 102). 

(c) A third subclass exhibits free sulphuric acid, and is 
especially noteworthy as being one of the few exceptions 
to the rule that the boiling springs are always alkaline. 
The Sulphur Terrace Spring is a typical example (for analysis 
see p. 102). The boiling water as it runs down rocky 



102 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

ledges has formed beautiful little terraces of pure sulphur. 
The spring evidently represents the condensation of a 
fumarole laden with sulphurous acid, a solfatara. The 
sulphurous acid on exposure is oxidized to sulphuric acid, 
and sulphur is deposited. 

(d) A fourth subclass is highly aluminous. 

Other waters offer striking physical contrasts of colour 
and texture, due in some cases to precipitation of sulphur, 
in others to the presence of iron salts and of various silicates] 
but in numberless others to causes as yet not accurately 
determined. Some of the hot springs too, especially some 
arising in the bed of the creek, contain quite appreciable 
quantities of petroleum. 

In addition to the mineral waters there are hot mud 
springs and mud volcanoes, including the largest mud 
cone of the district (vide fig. 60), and numerous fumaroles 
and solfataras. 

Baths.— With all this wealth of material there are only 
one or two baths of the most primitive description, so that 
Wai-o-tapu can at present be reckoned as only a potential 
spa. 

WAI-O-TAPU WATERS (1909) 
(Results expressed in grains per gallon) 



— 


Champagne Pool 


Sulphur Terrace. 


Roadman's Bath. 


Potassium chloride . 


i6-8 


2-2 


2-6' 


Sodium chloride 
Sodium sulphate 


220-4 


I6-I 
2-6 


40-9 

7-1 
1-8 


Calcium sulphate . 


6-6 


1-7 
0-4 

0-5 


Magnesmm sulphate 







Ferrous sulphate . 






Calcium bicarbonate 


^•s 




Sodium silicate 

Silica . . . .' 


41-0 


17-6 


17-3' 


Total solids 


288-2 


411 


69-7 


Carbonic acid (free) 
Sulphuric acid (free) 


13-2 


2-1 

2-5 
trace 


— 


Sulphuretted hydrogen . 1 
Temperature . " 


1-8 


trace 


212° F. 


212° F. 


212° F. (at source) 





Fig. 63.— natural WARM SWIMMING-BATH, WAIRAKEI. 
The stream of hot mineral water is formed by the overflow of numerous springs. 




Fig. 64.— the WARM SWIMMING-BATH, WAIRAKEI. 



[t03 




Fig. 65.— the " GREAT GEYSER," \VAIR.\KEI. 




Fig. 66.— the "DRAGON'S MOUTH" GEYSER, WAIRAKEI. 




Fig. 67.— the OUTFLOW OF BOILING WATER FROM THE GREAT GEYSER, 

WAIRAKEI. 






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THE SULPHUR SPAS 103 

These three waters together with an aluminous water represent the 
main t>-pes existent at Wai-o-tapu. The Champagne Pool is a saline water 
with abundant carbonic acid and a moderate amount of sulphuretted 
hydrogen ; it is the largest spring of its class in this district. 

The Sulphur Terrace Spring is particularly interesting in that it repre- 
sents one of the rare exceptions to the rule that the sulphuric acid waters 
are always found much below the boiling-point. The water flows out over 
a series of beautiful bright-yellow terraces gleaming with sulphur crystals 
formed by the deposition of sulphur in the process of the oxidation of 
sulphurous to sulphuric acid. 

The Roadman's Bath Spring is an example of the numerous " simple 
thermal " springs common throughout the thermal district. Such waters, 
neutral or alkaline in reaction, are of the variety classed as - deep '' 
waters in the chapter dealing with the genesis of the waters (vide p. 24) 
and are found in the geysers. 



Wairakei 

Wairakei, 30 miles beyond Wai-o-tapu on the road to 
Taupo, is again a tourist centre rather than a spa, and is 
famed more for its beautiful and fantastic geysers than for 
the therapeutic virtue of its springs. This is not because 
of any lack of medicinal value in the waters, but simply 
because, from want of development, the waters are, so to 
speak, lying fallow. 

Access. — By road from Rotorua or Taupo. 

Climate. — Bracing upland inland atmosphere. There is 
abundant sunshine, but at times cold winds blow off the 
snow mountains to the south. 

The Waters. — The springs are all extremely hot siliceous 
sulphur waters. These waters, though varying very greatly 
amongst themselves in regard to minor details of analysis, 
would appear to be divisible roughly into two main groups. 

Thus all the waters, or at any rate all those that have 
so far been examined, of the Geyser Vahey are muriated 
(cf. analysis of Champagne Pool, p. 105), while those of 
the Kiriohinekei Valley contain sulphuric acid (cf. analysis 
of " The Boilers," p. 109). Though the waters are drunk 
by a few invalids, it has been hitherto on no defined plan, 
and there is practically no record of the therapeutic effects. 



104 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Of course the waters of the Kiriohinekei Valley are not 
potable. 

The Baths. — The baths are primitive but exceedingly 
delightful ; indeed, I do not know any bath that for sheer 




Fig. 71.— the "TWINS" GEYSER, WAIRAKEI, IN ACTIVITY. 



luxury of surroundings quite equals the hot swimming-bath 
under the trees in the gardens of Wairakei. But little 
attempt has been made to cater for invalids, Wairakei 
being pre-eminently a tourist centre. 

Perhaps this is not to be wondered at when one considers 
its attractions. The Geyser Valley is the very quintessence 



THE SULPHUR SPAS 



105 



of the thermal sights of New Zealand. Elsewhere there 
may be finer geysers, but here they are more beautiful, and 
they are active at such frequent intervals that one may 
always be sure of seeing at least two or three " playing." 
The silica formation, too, is peculiarly and fantastically beau- 
tiful (cf. fig. 66), and there is also the largest and most famous 
fumarole of New Zealand, the Kerapiti blow-hole (fig. 68). 
In addition to thermal sights, there is the great Waikato 




Fig. 7.;.— mouth OF 'THE " TWINS " GEYSER. 

River in its most picturesque mood, now thundering over 
the superb Huka Falls, now roaring down the Aratiatia 
Rapids, and, in its quieter reaches, a peculiarly happy 
hunting-ground for the trout-fisher. (For table of analysis 
of mineral waters see p. 109.) 



Taupo 

Taupo is the most inland and the most elevated of the 
mineral-water health resorts of the North Island. It is 
situated on the northern shore of the lake — Taupo Moana — • 



106 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

at tlie point of emergence of the Waikato River. Across 
the lake is an impressive panorama of snow-topped volcanoes, 
Ruapehu, Tongariro, Te Mari, and Ngauruhoe, the two last- 
named still active, while behind it to the north frowns the 
extinct cone of Tau Kara. Round the base of this mountain 
rise numerous hot springs and geysers of the type with 
which we are already familiar. 

Access. — By road from Napier or Rotorua, or across the 




Fig. 73.— the "EAGLE'S NEST" GEYSER, WAIR.\KEI. 

The geyser arising in Manuka scrub, the ground strewn with abundant dead branches ; some 
of these latter have become silicated and cemented together round the mouth of the geyser. It 
is probable, however, that nature has been assisted by art. 

lake from Tokaanu, and thence by road from the Main 
Trunk Railway. 

Climate. — Practically in the centre of the island, the 
modifying effects of a sea climate are minimized as far as 
is possible in so narrow a country as New Zealand. The 
altitude is from 1,200 to 1,400 feet, and the air from the 
snow mountains is keen and bracing ; at the same time there 
is a large amount of sunshine, and the direct rays of the sun 
are hotter than in the lowlands, while the shade temperature 




Fig. 74-— the "CROW'S NEST" GEYSER, TAUPO. 
Compare the cone of this geyser with the " Braia-pot " (Fig. i6). 



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X. 



X. 

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THE SULPHUR SPAS 



107 
As a 



is lower, and the nights are cool even in summer 
result the climate is tonic and bracing. 

Like Wairakei, Taupo is the resort rather of the tourist 
than the invalid, still it has certainly more claims to the 
title of " spa " than any other place in the Thermal District 
except Rotorua. 




Fig. 76.— the DIXING-HALL, THE SPA, TAUPO: A MAORI 
CARVED HOUSE CONVERTED TO ITS PRESENT USE. 



The Springs. — There are geysers and hot springs alongside 
the Waikato, and others at the mountain foot, but the springs 
in actual use are in two valleys, at the " Spa " and at the 
" Terraces." The former lies in a sheltered valley, a garden 
hidden in a steep-walled hollow below the surface of the 
surrounding plain. In consequence of its sheltered position, 
and the number of hot springs, the climate of this little 



108 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

valley is very much milder than that of Taupo generally. 
There is an accommodation house of bungalow fashion, while 
simple immersion baths have been erected in the grounds, 
and streams of hot mineral water meander through the 
gardens and under the rose arbours. 

The Terraces Hotel, on the other hand, stands a couple 
of hundred feet higher, and enjoys a dry, bracing climate, 
while immediately alongside lie the springs and baths 
in a garden at the bottom of a deep ravine whose climate 
resembles that of the Spa. These contrasting climates 
should be borne in mind when ordering patients to Taupo, 
as a tonic or sedative climate can be selected at will. 

The Baths. — At the Spa the baths are of the simple 
immersion type, large wooden piscinae ; at the Terraces 
there are similar baths, but there is also a choice of a "spout 
bath," a hot waterfall which acts as a simple but effective 
douche, and of a large open-air hot swimming-bath. It is 
a curious feature that fish live and thrive in the hot stream 
that escapes from this bath. • 

The Waters. — The visitoi' must not be misled by the local 
titles of the springs, for some of the names have been origin- 
ally given on sheer conjecture, and have stuck. Thus at 
the Spa the " Arsenic Spring " contains no arsenic, but is a 
chalybeate, and the " Iodine Spring " contains no iodine. 

At the Spa the principal waters, then, are a mild chaly- 
beate containing 056 grain per gallon of ferrous bicarbonate, 
several sulphuretted saline waters, and others containing 
alum. 

At the Terraces there is a mild, hot chalybeate water, 
and another cold but containing more ferrous bicarbonate 
(0-84 grain), and bubbling with carbonic acid. There are 
also numerous hot sulphuretted saline waters, and one hot 
borated water, while several of the Taupo waters contain 
small quantities of sodium iodide. (For further analyses 
see p. 109.) 

Indications. — Taupo is an excellent spot for recuperation 
in convalescence from acute disease, but patients of this class 



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Sodium chloride 
Sodium sulphate 
Sodium bicarbonate 
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Ferrous bicarbonate 
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Calcium sulphate 
Magnesium sulphate 
Magnesium bicarbonj 
Silica 


bodmm Derate . 
Sulphuric acid (free) 
Carbonic acid (free) 
Hydrogen sulphide 
Ferrous sulphate 
Aluminium sulphate 













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109 



no THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 
should be warned to be very sparing in the use of the 
tempting hot baths. The cold chalybeate water at the 
Terraces would, however, be beneficial in patients who 
are still anaemic. 

Chronic arthritics do well taking the open-air and semi- 
open-air baths, combined with the bracing air and abundant 
sunshine they are likely to obtain. If sulphur waters are 
drunk they should be the saline waters rather than the 
borated so-called magnesia spring. 

TOKAANU 

Tokaanu, on the south side of Lake Taupo, contains 
numerous hot springs closely resembling those of Taupo 
and Wairakei. There is a concrete public immersion bath 
available, but no balneological appliances or resident doctor, 
and the place is a tourist rather than an invalid resort. 




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X 






CHAPTER VII 

the alkaline spas 

Te Aroha 

This is a pretty little watering-place nestling at the foot 
of Te Aroha ' Mountain, a picturesque and forest-clad peak 
standing out boldly at an angle of the Paeroa Range. In 
front, over the winding Waihou River, it overlooks the broad 
valleys of the Thames and Waikato. Formerly a gold- 
mining township, it is now the centre of a rich pastoral 
district which brings it an even greater and certainly more 
permanent prosperity. 

The springs, over twenty in number, but, according to the 
lavish New Zealand standard, somewhat limited in outflow, 
are scattered over an extensive public garden on the lower- 
most slopes of the mountain, and a number of bath-houses 
are dotted about the grounds, their situation generally 
determined by the outcrop of the principal springs. 

Most of the springs are hot, and the baths, while not 
imposing, are comfortable. While at Rotorua the life of 
the place centres round the baths, at Te Aroha it is round the 
springs ; the former is essentially a bathing resort, the latter 
more especially a place for drinking the waters. 

Access. — By train via the Rotorua line, or for Auckland 
visitors, there is an alternative route by boat to the Thames, 
and thence by train. 

Climate. — The climate is mild and sedative, an observation 
emphasized by the fact that Te Aroha marks the southern 

1 " Aroha " — " love " in Maori. 
Ill 



112 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

limit of the kauri belt.' In elevation it is for the most 
part very near the sea-level, though sufficiently raised by 
the extreme mountain-foot to be above the damp of the 
valley. The close proximity of the mountain, while sheltering 
the town from the north-east winds, has the disadvantage 
of cutting off some of the early morning sun, especially in 
winter, and of causing an eddy at times of gusty westerly 
winds. On the whole, however, the climate is essentially 
suited for invalids requiring a mild, warm, and sedative 
climate. 

The Season. — The baths are open all the year round, but 
the season is from November to April. 

Accommodation. — There are several hotels and boarding- 
houses abutting right on to the public gardens. 

Amusements. — The public gardens are laid out for tennis, 
bowls, and croquet, and there are some inviting clambers 
on the mountain-side for those whose physical infirmities 
do not preclude exertion ; but the gaieties of some of 
the European Continental spas are conspicuous by their 
absence. Te Aroha is rather a quiet, restful resort set 
amongst cliarming natural surroundings. 

The Mineral Waters. — There are three types of waters, 
the thermal alkaline, the cold chalybeate, and the magnesia. 
Of these, the first waters are much the most important, 
and are what are always meant when Te Aroha waters are 
spoken of, while the two latter are really variants of one 
type. 

Group I. The Alkaline Waters 

The AlkaUne Waters. — Tlie majority of the springs conform 
to this type, resembling the waters of Vichy (France), but 
containing a very much larger percentage of sodium bi- 
carbonate, and ranking as one of the strongest and, with 
the exception of certain .American waters, probably the 

1 The magnificent kauri forests, now, alas ! fast disappearing, flourished 
in New Zealand only in the northern extremity of the North Island. They 
appear to require an almost sub-tropical climate. 




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£ a £-S 5 2 

s 3 3 ■£ .:; C rt 

"-5 "-S "-S -^ ii ^-^ 
d ^g ::: 

cfi cfi c/3 Ph S C/2 


.1-* 

"o 

CO 

-t-> 



H 


1-1 

6^ 



O 
H 



O 

1—1 

< 

m 

W 

o 



c . - 

o - - 
o 

1-. 

a. ^ ^ 

O f«o r- 

o o PO 

O M PI 

Cs 



o I 
9 

6 

o 



" o C 
? C IJ 
C '^ ?r 



c 



8 



"3 



114 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 



No. 



Radio-activity 


OF Waters' 

Activity. 
Radium grammes 
X lo ^ *'- per c.c. 


Radium Conten 


ts 


OF Waters ' 

Activity. 
Ra'lium grammes 
X 10 '^ per c.c. 


2 Spring . 


0-026 


No. 2 Spring . 




0-0009 


6 


. 0-0I5 


,. 6 ,, 




00002 


8 


O-OIO 


,, 8 ., 




OOOIO 


15 .. 


• 0-031 


,, 15 




0-00I2 


20 


. 0-056 


,, 20 




00005 


22 


0-130 









actual strongest - alkaline thermal waters in therapeutic use. 
As in other waters of this type, there is also a certain amount 
of sodium chloride present ; indeed, the amount is almost 
sufficient to put this water in the class of muriated alkaline 
wate'ts of the Ems and Royat type, and some of the springs 
certainly might so be included. 

There is also a considerable amount of free carbonic 
acid gas, again as at Vichy and Ems, the amount varying in 
different springs. 

The amount of calcium bicarbonate is small, too small 
probably to have any marked pharmacological value, and 
there is a small amount of magnesium bicarbonate in all 
the waters, and a varying amount of sodium sulphate. 

The temperature of the several springs varies considerably, 
but the main sources are constant at 135° F. 

Pharmacological Action. Sodium Bicarbonate. — - Some- 
what conflicting views have been held as to the action of 
sodium bicarbonate in the stomach. It was formerly 
generally held that small doses stimulated and large doses 
inhibited gastric glandular activity. The experiments of 
Pawlow and of Bickel would, however, indicate that the 
alkali, even in small doses, has a depressing rather than a 
stimulating effect on gastric and pancreatic secretion, and 
acts beneficially bv giving a rest to the glandular apparatus 
during the period when secretion is not required. Linossier,' 

1 Maclaurin and Wright, Annual Report, Dominion Lab., 1911. 

2 The Castalian Springs, California, contain 1,724 grains, and the Sara- 
toga Springs, New York, up to 8x8 grains per U.S. gallon of alkaline 
carbonates. 

* Ann. del' Acad, de Med., Paris, April 14, 1908. 



THE ALKALINE SPAS 115 

however, in a more recent investigation, reverts to the older 
opinion, and maintains that sodimii bicarbonate stimulates 
the secretion of hydrochloric acid. He says that the alkali 
acts in two ways : (i) the immediate chemical action 
neutralizes free acid ; (2) further action stimulates the 
secretion of hydrochloric acid but not of pepsin, so that the 
final result is an increase of acid. 

To increase gastric acidity the alkali should be given 
before meals ; to neutralize excessive acidity large doses 
should be given two hours after food, so that the food 
leaves the stomach before the drug causes a further stimu- 
lation of the hydrochloric acid. From this it is obvious 
that the motor activity of the stomach must largely determine 
whether the soda acts as an acidifier or as an antacid. 

In an earlier paper ^ the same observer advocates, in hypo- 
acidity, small doses fifteen minutes before a meal, or large 
doses an hour before. Large doses cause a feeling of satiety, 
which is gradually followed by increased desire for food, 
the hydrochloric acid being first neutralized and then a 
greater flow being stimulated. In hyper-acidity he gives 
small doses every half-hour during digestion, beginning from 
the time that the pain comes on and continuing till digestion 
is finished. 

Te Aroha water, however, is by no means a simple alkaline 
water, and the presence of common salt and of carbonic 
acid, both of which are stimulants to the gastric mucous 
membrane, must at any rate diminish any inhibitory 
power that sodium bicarbonate may possess. 

Alkaline waters are diuretic, and increase the solvent 
power of the urine for uric acid, and their diuretic power is 
enhanced by the presence of carbonic acid gas. The urine 
at the same time is rendered neutral or alkaline. They 
temporarily increase the alkalinity of the blood,- and so 
increase the consumption of oxygen and the output of 
carbonic acid, thereby stimulating both nitrogenous and non- 

1 Journal des Practiciens, 1895. 

2 Kisch, System of Physiologic Therap. (Cohen) 



116 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

nitrogenous metabolism. Mucus is more readily dissolved, 
alike in the stomach, the bronchi, and in the bladder, and, 
as a consequence, gastric catarrh may be relieved, expector- 
ation in bronchitis eased, and conglomerate stones held to- 
gether by mucus may be broken up. As there is also a 
cholagogue action, the use of these waters in biliary con- 
cretion is explained. 

Purely alkaline waters are " lowering," and are more 
suitable for stout, plethoric patients than for the thin and 
debilitated. Tc Aroha water, however, as we have seen, 
is not a purely alkaline water, but is rather intermediate 
in type between the alkaline waters of Vichy and the alkaline 
saline, such as those of Ems. 

Sodium Chloride. —The action of this salt is in some direc- 
tions opposite to that of the bicarbonate, so that in Te Aroha 
water it acts like the " corrective " in a prescription. It 
stimulates the mucous membrane of the stomach and intes- 
tine, and makes the water less " lowering." At the same 
time it tends, while increasing peristalsis, to render the 
contents of the bowel more fluid, and acts both as a laxative 
and diuretic. As these waters contain fair quantities of 
sodium sulphate, their action should be somewhat purgative. 
As a matter of fact, their action in this respect is very small 
and varies in different individuals. 

The ingestion of sodium chloride increases 'the amount of 
salt excreted by the kidneys, and this favours both the 
solubility of uric acid and its elimination.' It also promotes 
the absorption and assimilation of nutritive material, and 
so promotes nutrition. 

Indications. — Gastric catarrh and hyperacidity, gout in 
sthenic cases, gouty glycosuria, biliary calculus, uric-acid 
calculus, and chronic catarrh of the respiratory organs. 

The usual initial dose of the waters is a small glass (6 to 
8 ounces) twice daily an hour before or two hours after a 
meal. This may be increased gradually, in suitable cases, 
to a large glass (lo ounces) three times a day. In gouty cases 

1 Weber, Climatotherapy and Balneotherapy. 



THE ALKALINE SPAS 117 

more especially it is well to proceed cautiously, or most 
unpleasant exacerbation of symptoms may ensue. In 
biliary calculus the case must be carefully watched. We may 
anticipate, in favourable cases, a mechanical sweeping out 
of micro-organisms and toxins from the gall bladder, and 
a disintegration of concretions, but the danger of impaction 
is always present. After operation, however, a course of 
mineral water is free from objection, and may do great 
good in many cases. 

In renal calculus even more caution is needed. If one 
can be sure that the stone is pure, or nearly pure, uric 
acid, there is a reasonable hope that it may be so reduced 
in size as to pass the ureter, though here again there is 
obvious danger ; but the cases in which such assurance can 
be held are so rare as to be almost negligible. ^ Should the 
stone, on the other hand, prove to be composed of calcium 
oxalate or phosphate, as is much more probable, only harm 
will come of giving Te Aroha water. Stone in the bladder 
is more likely to consist of uric acid, and again its character 
is more easily gauged, so that in bladder cases this water is 
more useful. I have several times seen uric-acid stones 
passed during a course of these waters. They have generally 
been multiple, small, rounded uric- acid masses about tV inch 
in diameter, seldom larger, not faceted, and probably 
formed in the bladder. Larger so-called uric-acid stones, 
definitely located in the kidney, are generally of mixed 

1 Benjamin Moore (" The Chemical Composition and Mode of Forma- 
tion of. Renal Calculi," B.M.J., April i, 191 1), making a quantitative 
analysis of 24 stones, found in 21 cases from the kidney and ureter, and 
one from the prostate, an enormous preponderance of calcium oxalate 
and phosphate, and a very small percentage of uric acid, and that largely 
in the form of the insoluble calcium urate. Two stones taken from the 
bladder consisted of almost pure uric acid. As the solubility of calcium 
oxalate and calcium phosphate is enormously decreased by increased 
alkalinity, it is obvious that in 22 cases out of the 24 — that is, in all the 
kidney cases — -harm would have been done by giving an alkaline mineral 
water. Indeed, it would appear probable that it is on their solvent action 
on bladder-stones, which may consist of almost pure uric acid, that the 
reputation of alkaline mineral water in urinary cases rests. 



118 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

constitution, and the solvent action on them of the alkalies 
is more than doubtful. The use of the waters in diabetes 
must be guarded by certain well-defined reservations. 
Young, thin, asthenic subjects, in fact grave cases generally, 
should not be sent to Tc Aroha ; while plethoric, middle- 
aged gouty people — cases of gouty glycosuria — may do 
very well indeed. It is well to remember, however, that 
little facility exists for special dieting, and that unless a 
patient is prepared to take a furnished house he may have 
almost insuperable difficulties in obtaining a proper dietary. 
Contra-indications. — Gout in the acute, or threatening 
the acute stage, asthenic gastric hypo-acidity, and the atonic 
dyspepsia of ancemia. 



ANALYSIS OF WATERS 
(In grains per gallon) 

Group II. The Cold Magnesium Waters 



— 


Spring No. 20 
(1904). 


Spring No. 21 
(190O- 


Spring No. 22 
(1903). 


Sodium chloride . 
Sodium bicarbonate 
Sodium sulphate . 
Potassium chloride 
Calcium bicarbonate 
Magnesium bicarbonate . 
Ferrous bicarbonate 
Lithium chloride . 
Silica 


1-9 

3-3 
9-1 

1-3 

8-9 

11-9 

1-2 

4-5 


23-9 
258-1 

9-3 
4-1 

31-5 

133 

0-7 

13-5 


26-57 

179-81 

18-19 

1-08 

31-82 

11-24 

0-12 

traces 

392 


Total solids . 


42-1 


354-4 


272-75 


Free carbonic acid 
Temperature (Fahr.) 


60-4 
Cold 


103-4 
Cold 


yi-o 
Tepid 



Group II. The Magnesium Waters 

All the alkaline thermal springs contain a certain amount 
of magnesium bicarbonate, but the quantity is so small 
as to be almost negligible ; the cold and subthermal springs. 



THE ALKALINE SPAS 119 

on the other hand, while more weakly mineralized, contain 
an appreciable amount of the magnesium salt. They arise 
principall}' at the eastern extremity of the gardens, a second 
group springing from private property/ a few yards away. 
They are pleasant to drink, the faintly sweet taste masked 
b}^ a slight flavour of iron ; indeed, spring No. 20 contains 
almost enough ferrous bicarbonate to be classed among the 
chalybeates. 

In addition to these salts there is calcium bicarbonate 
to the extent of over 30 grains per gallon, so that the re- 
semblance of these waters to some of the calcareous waters 
of Europe, especially Wildungen, is very close indeed. 
Where they differ is in the large amount of sodium bi- 
carbonate, though this is in less quantity than in the thermal 
alkaline waters. There appears also to be an appreciable 
but variable amount of lithiwn chloride in these springs. 
The amount has varied from " a trace " to i'2 grain per 
gallon (1913), and may possibly have a specific action in 
gout, for the effect of even minute doses in the form of 
dissociated ions may be made greater than that of similar 
doses of the salt in ordinary' form.^ 

Pharmacological Action. — In addition to the actions 
already noted of the sodium chloride and bicarbonate, 
the calcium salts, by their astringent effect, act beneficially 
in irritable digestive troubles, and in large doses are diuretic, 
though it is very doubtful whether they increase the output 
of uric acid. The magnesium salt is also antacid and seda- 
tive, though its action on the bowel is neutralized b}- the 
calcium. The possible effect of lithium has already been 
considered. 

Spring No. 20 is a weakly mineralized variant of the other 
cold springs, but contains i"2 grain of bicarbonate of iron, 
and, also like the other springs, a fair amount of carbonic 
acid. It is thus a mild, pleasant chalybeate, easily borne in 
cases of anaemia with feeble digestion and irritable stomach. 

A few miles away at Paeroa there is a large, warm, effer- 

1 Cf. lithium salts in Hanmer waters, p. 95. 



120 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

vescing spring of very closely similar nature, but containing 
73 grains of magnesium bicarbonate to the gallon. It is 
a corrective of acid dyspepsia, and a pleasant drink withal, 
and had in the old days, I am told, a reputation among 
the gold-miners of the district as a Sunday-morning drink 
after a " Saturday-night burst." 

Indications for Magnesium Water. — Dyspeptics and ^outy 
cases with irritable stomach, who do not tolerate the thermal 
alkaline water ; cases of ancvmia with feeble digestion 
(Spring 20). 

Group III. The Chalybeate Waters 

In a garden a short distance to the east of the Public 
Gardens arises a group of cold springs closely resembling 
Group II, the magnesium springs. One of these, however, 
is considerably richer in the iron salt and deserves to be 
more generally known. Their on is in the easily assimil- 
able form of ferrous bicarbonate, and is associated with 
small quantities of earthy and alkaline carbonates : as 
the amount of free carbonic acid is considerable, the water 
is also extremely palatable. 



COLD SPRINGS (1913) 
(Analysis expressed in grains per gallon) 





Spring 


Spring 


Spring 


Spring 


Spring 


Spring 


Spring 




No. 1. 


No. 7. 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 


No. 5. 


No. 6. 


No. 7. 


Sodium chloride 




0-7 












Lithium chloride 


— 




traces 


— 


— 


traces 


0-14 


Sodium bicarbonate . 


2-17 


0-2I 


3-43 


4-76 


4-34 


6-44 


5-67 


Magnesium chloride . 


1-33 


I-I9 


1-89 


2-03 


1-68 


1-54 


1-54 


Magnesium sulphate . 


2-31 


0-42 


0-42 


— 


— 






Calcium bicarbonate . 


15-40 


7-91 


27-30 


22-12 


15-89 


48-16 


25-90 


Magnesium bicarbonate 


0.49 




12-25 





5-39 


15-40 


11-27 


Ferrous bicarbonate . 


4-55 


0-35 


0-14 


0-35 


0-91 


0-14 


0-07 


Alumina . 


1-89 


0-2I 


0-2I 


0-84 


0-35 


0-98 


0-56 


Sodium silicate . 


5-II 


5-32 


5-32 


3-78 


5-88 


6-23 


5-39 


Total solids 


33-25 


16-31 


50-96 


33-88 


34-44 


78-89 


5054 


Free carbonic acid 


76-93 


59-29 


0-7 


71-82 


74-34 


53-41 


3689 



THE ALKALINE SPAS 121 

Indications. — Cases of ancBmia with delicate digestion 
and most cases of chlorosis. As the amount of associated 
magnesium salts is small, it may be advisable to administer 
simultaneous doses of purgatives. 

Dosage. — One small glass (6 ounces), increased later to 
a large glass (lo ounces), three times a day. 

It will be noted that of these springs only No. i can be 
reckoned as a true chalybeate. The remaining waters, 
while weakly mineralized and lacking the sodium bicarbonate, 
closely resemble the " magnesia water " found in the Govern- 
ment Gardens. They are calcic-magnesic waters, diuretic 
and feebly antacid. For geographical reasons, however, and 
to prevent confusion of identity, these springs are grouped 
separately here. 

The Springs. — The principal sources for drinking the 
alkaline water are the Octagon Spring (No. 8) and the Pump 
Spring (No. 15). 

These two springs are practically identical in chemical 
composition, though No. 15 is considerably the hotter, and 
popular opinion attributes to them different therapeutic 
properties. They are both alkaline waters of the type 
predominating at Te Aroha, and these are the springs re- 
ferred to when the term " Te Aroha water " is used. The 
" Magnesia Spring " is No. 21, though No. 22 is sometimes 
used, and the " Iron Spring " is No. 20. 

The Baths. — These are supplied by the alkaline thermal 
waters only, and, as at Rotorua, they are of two main types : 
the newer or Cadman Baths, in which the water is led in 
pipes to the establishment, and the older baths, built over 
the actual springs. The remarks already made in regard 
to the Rotorua baths (see p. 83) apply here with equal 
force, and there are certain advantages and disadvantages 
inseparable from either plan. There has always been a 
preference among invalids for the public immersion baths 
in the actual springs where the water and carbonic acid 
gas bubble up through the floor ; and in view of what we 
have already noted about the quality of " freshness " in 



122 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

mineral water, and also of the effect on the skin of carbonic 
acid gas, it would seem that this preference is justified. 

No. 2 Bath, which is generally kept at a temperature of 
from 102'^ F. to 104° F., is the favourite, though there is 
a large subthermal bath on similar lines which is more 
suitable in hot weather for cases in which more tonic treat- 
ment is indicated. 

The so-called " skin disease bath " is a small private 
bath supplied from No. 16 Spring, a tepid to cool alkaline 
water containing a certain amount of sulphuretted hydrogen. 
It has probably gained its reputation from the deeply 
rooted popular belief in sulphur as a skin medicament. 

The Cadman Baths consist of suites of private immersion 
baths comfortably housed in a not unpicturesque pavilion. 
They have the advantage of hotter water and of privacy 
and cleanliness, but the gas in the water is lost. They are 
supplied bv Springs Nos. 13, 14, and 15. 

Indications. — The baths may be used with advantage in 
conjunction with drinking the waters in nearly all arthritic 
cases. As appliances are of the simplest, immersion baths 
are the only ones practically available, and for an account 
of the physiological action of such baths the reader is re- 
ferred to Chapter XVI. 

Apart from this general action, however, the thermal 
waters, owing to their soft nature and the solvent action 
of the alkali on sebaceous secretions, are useful as baths 
in certain skin diseases, especially those of a seborrhceic 
nature. Thus, in cases of seborrhoea of the scalp, and in 
those very frequent cases in which psoriasis on the body 
merges imperceptibly into seborrhoea, the alkali forms almost 
a soap with the sebaceous material, and is of material 
assistance in removing crusts and scales. 



CHAPTER VIII 

the saline spas 
saline waters 

Waiwera 

This is a quiet and very charming little spa, hemmed in 
between high forest-clad hills behind and the blue waters 
of the Pacific in front. The baths are built on the sandy 
beach at one end of the bay, at the other a trout stream 
opens out into the sea ; between are one large hotel, a 
few cottages, and the pier. 

Access. — By steamboat or road from Auckland, some 
thirty miles distant to the south. 

Climate. — The climate is mild and equable, and frosts 
are rare and never severe, so that as a winter resort for those 
requiring a mild, sedative climate the place has great possi- 
bilities. The chief drawbacks in winter are the fairly heavy 
rainfall and the execrable state of the winter road to Auck- 
land. To counterbalance the rainfall, however, there is 
at all times of the year a very large amount of sunshine. 
On the whole, perhaps, the autumn is the most suitable 
time for invalids, from March almost till July, for the short 
winter is late in setting in. 

The Springs. — These arise on the actual shore, about 
high-water mark, and some of them below that level. 

The Baths. — Simple but comfortable immersion baths 
have been built over the springs, so that the wahs of the 
building are washed by the sea, but there are none of the 
accessories that are generally associated with spa treatment. 

The Waters. — These are alkaline saline and slightly 

123 



124 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

chalybeate. Their action is first to neutraHze acidity 
e.g. in fermentative dyspepsia, and then to stimulate gastric 
secretion. They tend to hquefy mucus, whether in the 
ahmentary or the bronchial passages, and by liquefying 
bronchial secretion they facilitate expectoration 

The dose is lo ounces fresh and hot from the spring, taken 
two or three times a day on an empty stomach. 

ANALYSIS 

c J • . , . . Grains per gallon, 

bodium chloride . . ii6-7 

Sodium bicarbonate 



Ferrous bicarbonate 

Total solids 
Temperature . 



87-5 
0-6 

^19-5 
105" F. 



Indications.-Patients seriously ill should not be sent to 
Waiwera. as there is no resident doctor, but many forms of 
dyspepsia, especially if associated with hypo-acidity, should 
do well. Convalescents and cases of chlorosis should take 
the waters, combined, during most of the year, with sea- 
bathing. The combination of a mild climate and alkaline 
saline waters is especially suitable for chronic bronchitis. 

Helensville 
This place, also north of Auckland, but on the west 
coast, has recently attracted a good deal of notice, largely 
by reason of the energy and determination of its manage- 
ment. When first I knew it, one small hand-pump which 
the bather worked himself, drew the water from the hot 
saline spring rising in a boggy field surrounded by the mud 
flats of an estuary. The field has been drained and replaced 
by a garden, bores have been sunk for abundant additional 
mineral water, excellent baths have been built, and boarding- 
houses and private hotels have sprung up. The original 
town is situated a mile or so away on the other side of the 
river. 

Access.-By train from Auckland, short in point of dis- 
tance, but unhappily not so in point of time. 



THE SALINE SPAS 125 

Climate. — The climate is mild and sedative, perhaps some- 
what enervating in the summer, and for Auckland people, 
who naturally constitute the chief visitors, hardly affords 
sufficient change. There are very many patients, however, 
for whom such a climate is beneficial and even essential. 

The Baths. — There are several immersion baths of the 
usual type, and a large hot swimming-bath. 

The Waters. — These are of the purely saline type, but 
contain a small quantity of iodide. Their action is diuretic, 
and they also stimulate the gastric mucous membrane 
and increase the secretion of hydrochloric acid. Uric-acid 
excretion is favoured, and general nutrition promoted. 



ANALYSIS 






Grains per gallon. 


Sodium chloridq 


114-46 


Sodium iodide 


0-03 


Total solids 


. 134-68 


Gases, HjS and CH4 




Temperature .... 


ii5°to 146" F. 



Indications. — The waters are indicated in chronic dyspepsia 
with hypo-acidity, especially if associated with hepatic 
engorgement and piles. Similar waters in Europe, contain- 
ing small quantities of iodide, are given in cachectic and 
syphilitic conditions. Though the amount of iodide is 
extremely small, it is not impossible, in view of what we 
have already discussed in relation to ionized waters, that it 
may have some therapeutic action. A combination of bathing 
and drinking the waters is also indicated in chronic gouty 
and " rheumatic " conditions, and in some bronchial cases. 

Tarawera 

Tarawera, on the Taupo-Napier road, has hot springs of 
no great magnitude, simple immersion baths, and hotel 
accommodation. The waters are of the muriated type, and 
contain 0-25 grain of sodium iodide to the gallon. Their 
action would be practically identical with those of Helens- 



126 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

ville, but at present they are comparatively little used, and 
no balneological appliances or medical supervision are 
available. 

ANALYSIS 

Grains per gallon. 
Sodium chloride .... 8000 
Sodium iodide .... 0-25 

Total solids .... loooo 



IODISE WATERS 

A class of thermal waters characterized by high 
mineralization with calcium and sodium chlorides, and 
very appreciable quantities of sodium iodide and free 
iodine, is found on the east coast of the North -Island. 
The most important of these springs arise at Morere and 
Te Puia, and at both of these spots baths and accommo- 
dation houses have been erected. 

Morere 

Access. — Morere is reached most easily by road from 
Gisbomc, or from Napier via W'airoa. 

In the summer this journey is easy enough, in winter 
the place is practically isolated by the atrocious condition 
of the clay roads. 

Climate. — This is at all times mild and sedative, with 
heavy rains in the winter. 

Accommodation. — Hotel and boarding-house. 

The Springs. — Several fairly copious hot springs arise 
in the bed and sides of a small torrential creek, a circum- 
stance which renders the collection and use of the waters 
at times somewhat difficult. At the actual source free iodine 
would appear to be almost, if not quite absent ; but a short 
distance away, especially when the water has been allowed 
to fall in douche form into the baths, some decomposition 
of the iodide appears to take place, and free iodine makes 
its presence knowTi in sufficient quantities to be appreciated 




Fig. 79.— a grove OF NIKAU PALM AT MORERE. 



126} 



THE SALINE SPAS 



127 



by its pungent smell and to colour the water pale brown. 
The average temperature of the springs is 120° F. 

The Waters. — In addition to iodine, the waters contain 
large quantities of calcium and sodium chloride, and are 
by no means palatable. Hitherto, on account of the some- 
what remote- position of the springs, they have not been 
so much used as might be anticipated, and no exact records 




Fig. 80.— the BATH-HOUSE, MORERE, IX A PICTURESQUE SETTING OF 

N.\TIVE BUSH. 



exist of their therapeutic efficacy, but Kreuznach, which has 
somewhat similar calcic-sodic-muriated waters, has a great 
reputation. 

At that spa, in addition to bathing, the patients drink 
two or three glasses of the water on an empty stomach. 
There too they inhale the spray obtained by letting the 
water drip from high fences of twigs, and this is believed 
to be an essential part of " the cure." The cases treated at 
Kreuznach are those of scrofula and rickets and of catarrh 



128 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

of the respiratory passages, and also cases of chronic skin 
diseases and of syphilis. 

At Morere the waters are very much stronger, and much 
smaller doses would be indicated, perhaps three or four 
ounces, repeated. Here too the iodine, being practically 
nascent, should have most active therapeutic properties, 
and I am convinced that at some future date, when the 
springs become more accessible and better known, they will 
become famou^r 

ANALYSIS 

Grains per gallon. 
Calcium chloride .... 594-78 
Sodium chloride .... 1,249-67 
Sodium iodide .... 2-70 

(Also sufficient free iodine to tinge the 
water light brown) 

Total solids .... 1,809-60 
Temperature ..... i20°F. 

The Baths. — Simple immersion baths have been con- 
structed, but no special hydro-therapeutic apparatus is 
provided, and there is no resident doctor. 



Te Puia 

Te Puia, north of Gisborne, on the same coast-road as 
Morere, has springs of a closely similar nature, but weaker, 
both in total salts and in iodide. For drinking purposes 
this is not altogether a disadvantage, as they are thereby 
rendered somewhat more digestible and somewhat less 
unpalatable. Their action is the same as that of the Morere 
waters, and they are indicated in the same class of cases. 





ANALYSIS 


Grains per gallon. 


Calcium chloride 


. 


- 153-40 


Sodium chloride 


. 


- 807-75 


Sodium iodide 


. ' . 


I-4I 


Total solids 


. 


- 978-69 


Gas, CH4 






Temperature . 


. 


. 150° F. 



THE SALINE SPAS 129 

The Springs. — These are numerous and have a consider- 
able output. They arise on broken country high above 
the shore on a picturesque site with a broad outlook over 
the Pacific. 

In addition to the springs, Te Puia is noteworthy for 
the large amount of free carburetted hydrogen evolved, 
not only from the springs, but from clefts in the surrounding 
rocks. In view of the utility of this gas for domestic pur- 
poses, it will aid materially in the future development of 
the spa. 

The Baths. — The baths are still exceedingly primitive, 
and at present are but little used except by the population 
of the district. There is, however, a well-built hospital 
close to the springs, and, as the whole district is developing, 
there can be little doubt that before very long these valuable 
waters will, as in the case of Morere, attract considerable 
attention. 

Accommodation. — There is an accommodation-house for 
visitors. 



CHAPTER IX 

the calcium spas 
calcic carbonated waters 

Kamo 

Kamo is in the centre of an extensive and interesting lime- 
stone district, and its waters, as is usual in districts of this 
geological formation, are calcareous, chalybeate, and abound- 
ing in carbonic acid gas. As a spa it is at present suffering 
from a wholly undeserved obscurity, and there can be no 
doubt whatever that, when its merits become better known, 
it will some day become famous. 

At present it consists simply of an hotel, with springs 
and baths in its own grounds, and were it not for its bottled 
waters, would be a name unknown outside its own little 
district. It has, however, great therapeutic possibilities, and 
even in its present state of development is a place to which 
very many cases might be sent with benefit. 

Access. — There is a regular steamboat service from Auck- 
land to Whangarei, a short and easy passage of a few hours, 
and largely in sheltered waters. The entrance at Whangarei 
Heads, under the towering limestone cliffs, is exceedingly 
picturesque, as is the fine harbour itself. From Whangarei 
is 'only a short ride through orange groves and orchards, 
by bus or train, to Kamo. 

Climate. — Being so far north, near the sea, and sheltered by 

hills, the climate is exceedingly mild, as indeed is evidenced 

by the abundant crops of oranges, lemons, grapes, and 

other fruits to be seen on cither hand. The summer is hot 

and somewhat relaxing, and the winter, though very mild, 

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THE CALCIUM SPAS 131 

inclined to be wet. On the whole the autumn, March to 
June, is perhaps the best time for patients to stay. 

The Springs. — Two main springs are used — one for bottling 
the waters and for drinking, and the other for baths — and 
both foam vigorously with gas, more especially the bathing 
spring. In addition there is quite a number of smaller 
springs of the same nature in the neighbourhood, and one 
or two isolated ones may be found much farther north in 
the direction of the Bay of Islands. 

The Waters. — As already indicated, these are of the 
alkaline-carbonated-calcareous-chalybeate type, resembling 
in many respects the famous waters of Contrexeville, but 
warmer and much more gaseous, and there is an abundant 
flow. 

ANALYSIS 





Grains per gallon 


Calcium bicarbonate 


. 57-68 


Sodium bicarbonate 


. 38-64 


Sodium chloride 


38-01 


Ferrous bicarbonate 


0-28 


Total solids 


. 164-36 


Temperature . 


78° F. 



The Baths. — As at most New Zealand spas, the baths 
are of two types, the natural and the artificial. In the 
former the patient bathes in the actual spring at its natural 
temperature, in the latter the water is led to the baths and 
heated. 

The natural bath, foaming furiously with carbonic acid, 
certainly secures the maximum therapeutic effects ; at 
the same time, unless used with much greater caution than 
hitherto, it is very dangerous. The amount of carbonic 
acid given off by the spring varies from day to day, so that 
while sometimes it may form a layer only one or two inches 
deep over the water, at other times it may be almost as 
many feet, and the incautious and unattended bather may 
meet with disaster. Safety could be ensured, though at 
the cost of a little efficiency, by leading off the waters two 
or three feet into baths alongside, also by a previous test 



132 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

of the depth of the gas layer with a lighted match before 
the bather steps in, and by never leaving him for a moment 
unattended. 

On entering the bath tlic water, being subthermal, 
feels chilly, but within a minute or two, as a layer of gas 
bubbles collects on the skin, this is replaced by a feeling 
of warmth. 1 

There is a very pronounced stimulation of the unstriped 
muscles of the skin, as evidenced first by " goose-flesh," and 
later, in male bathers, by a contraction of the dartos which 
may be so vigorous as to be actually painful. 

At the same time the circulation is powerfully affected. 
The pulse is slowed and strengthened, the skin flushed 
pink and hyperaemic, and the nervous system is stimulated. 
In fact, there are all the results, but exaggerated, of the 
reactive phase (p. 248) of a cold bath. The bath, in fine, 
is a powerful tonic. 

In the hot baths the water is heated before admittance 
to the baths. As a result, the carbonic acid is driven off 
and the ferrous bicarbonate decomposed and deposited 
as oxide, and the quahty of "freshness" is lost. As a 
consequence these baths act as hot mild saline baths, and 
no more. Were the water heated in the actual bath, as 
at Nauheim, a good deal of the carbonic acid might be 
utilized. 

Pharmacological Action. — The waters are diuretic and 
mildly antacid. At the same time the carbonic acid and 
sodium chloride act as gentle gastric stimulants. The iron, 
though in small amount, is present in an easily assimilated 
form, and its absorption is promoted by the presence of 
carbonic acid. 

Indications. — The waters are indicated in many forms 
of indigestion, especially those associated with diarrhoea 
and irritability of the mucous membrane, or again, with 
deficient muscular activity of the stomach. 

1 See page 248, on the comparison of the "indifferent temperature" 
of water and gas. 



THE CALCIUM SPAS 133 

Cases of chlorosis and ancBmia following loss of blood 
or delayed convalescence do well. The waters are also 
indicated in cases of atonic gout with anaemia and impaired 
digestion. When the baths have been arranged on a safer 
basis they should be invaluable in the treatment of many 
heart conditions with feeble musculature and failing com- 
pensation, and will, I believe, even surpass their celebrated 
prototype at Nauheim. In the meantime, if taken with 
due precautions, they are splendid tonics in cases of ordinary 
debility. 



CHAPTER X 

THE SIMPLE THERMAL SPAS 
SIMPLE THERMAL WATERS 

Simple thermal springs are common in the lower Waikato 
Valley, as are hot sulphur springs in the upper course of 
the river. There are springs of other types, such as a cold 
chalybeate water at INIorrinsville, but the simple thermal 
type predominates. The best-known springs of this district 
are at Okoroire, but there are others fully as abundant at 
Whangape, Matamata, and Waingaro. At the two latter 
places baths of a very simple type exist. 

Okoroire 

Access. — By train from Auckland or Rotorua. 

Climate. — The climate is mild and pleasant, without being 
enervating. Situated between Rotorua and Auckland, 
Okoroire is also intermediate in elevation, so that its climate 
is milder than that of Rotorua but less so than that of 
Auckland. 

Accommodation. — The place consists of one comfortable 
hotel on the banks of the Waihou River. 

The Baths. — These are primitive wooden structures 
perched precariously on the river bank. Though primi- 
tive, they are distinctly pleasant, and the water, clear and 
limpid and blue, as all these pure siliceous waters are, is 
most inviting. The baths are piscinae about ten feet square, 
while one, the " Fairy Bath," is an open-air structure built 
in a spring and overhung by ferns and shrubs. 

The Waters. — The most noticeable ingredient of the 

134 



THE SIMPLE THERMAL SPAS 135 

waters is sodium silicate. This imparts a characteristic 
appearance to the water and renders it soft and pleasant 
in a bath. Internally these waters are used as a general 
flush to the system. 

ANALYSIS 



Sodium chloride 
Silicates 

Total solids 
Temperature . 



Grains per gallon. 

17-18 

9-70 

42-34 
. 113° F. 



Indications. — Okoroire, with its pleasant mild climate and 
simple baths, its pretty trout stream, and its golf links, 
is a place for the quiet holiday-seeker rather than the true 
invalid. At the same time, 7nild arthritic cases undoubtedly 
benefit, and cases of chronic gastric catarrh may do better 
than at a more potent spring. For the latter cases a tum- 
blerful of the water should be drunk fresh and hot from the 
spring on an empty stomach. The warm bland fluid will 
flush the stomach and bowel, while the siUcate will exert 
a very mild antiseptic action. 

Mat A MAT A 

This place can hardly at present by any stretch of 
language be dignified with the name of a spa. A few miles 
distant from Okoroire, on the same line of railway, it has 
closely similar springs, but with the chloride of sodium 
replaced by the bicarbonate. The simple immersion baths 
are a good deal used locally, but are practically unknown 
outside the district. 

The water should be a pleasant corrective in chronic 
dyspepsia, and, if drunk in large quantities, an alkaline 
flush of the urinary system. 

ANALYSIS 

(i) (ii) 

Grains per gallon. Grains per gallon. 

Sodium bicarbonate . . . 28-10 31-29 

Total solids (chiefly silicates) . 46-66 48-16 

Temperature ..... 106° F. 110° F. 



136 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Waingaro 

Waingaro/ on the coach-road from Ngaruawhahia ' to 
the west coast, has waters of the most strictly simple 
" thermal" type, containing only 22 grains of solids to the 
gallon. It is not a " spa," though it is used locally and had 
at one time a great reputation among the Maoris. The 
outflow of water is very large and the temperature high. 
There is a large simple immersion bath, with hotel accom- 
modation alongside. 





ANALYSIS 


Grains per gallon. 


Sodium chloride 


• ■ 


6-43 


Silica 


. 


7-8o 


Total solids 


. 


22-66 


Temperature . 


* 


. 130° F. 



1 For the uninitiated, the pronunciation of these two places is roughly 
Wynarrow and Nah-rua-waheah, with an emphasis on the "wah." 



CHAPTER XI 

CLASSIFICATION OF THE " RHEUMATIC " DISEASES 

Classification of Diseases adopted here. — Before making 
recommendations for sending to specified spas patients 
suffering from certain specified ailments, it is necessary to 
define our terminology, for, unhappily, in no branch of 
medicine is there more confusion of nomenclature than in 
the so-called " rheumatic" diseases. Thus under the head 
of " chronic rheumatism " are included a whole series of 
complaints whose aetiology and pathology are wholly diverse, 
so that the term is so comprehensive as to be meaningless. 
Yet, while not official, the word is so universally used that 
it cannot be ignored. 

Again, to half our readers the term " rheumatoid 
arthritis " will signify an infective polyarthritis, while the 
other half will regard it as synonymous with osteo-arthritis. 

The classification used in this book is based on the author's 
own experience, and may not be accepted by perhaps a 
considerable proportion of his readers. It is based, however, 
on the experience of many years and of many thousands 
of cases, and at any rate has the merit of sufficient precision 
to enable the reader to translate the terms into those of 
the classification to which he is accustomed. It will be 
noted that the so-called rheumatic diseases are divided into 
two main groups — those in which the temporo-maxillary 
and cervical vertebral joints are affected, and those in which 
they are not. The distinction, although at first sight appar- 
ently trivial and arbitrary, is in reality of great practical 
importance, both from the point of view of diagnosis and of 
treatment ; for the former class definitely and absolutely ex- 
cludes gout and true rheumatism, and includes the infective 
cases, and moreover indicates a tonic line of treatment. 

137 



138 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

In the subjoined table such conditions as the tubercular, 
pyaemic, and Charcot joint are omitted, and only those 
implied by the ordinary use of the term " rheumatic " 
are included. 



SUGGESTED CLASSIFICATION OF THE " RHEUMATIC " GROUP 

OF ARTHRITIC DISEASES 



Group A. 


- I. 


Gout (Acute) 
(Chronic) 


Jaw-neck syndrome • 
absent. 


2. 


Rheumatism (Acute) 
(Chronic) 




3- 


Gonorrhoea! arthritis or rheuma- 
tism. 




4- 


Dysenteric arthritis or rheuma- 


Group B. 




tism. 


Jaw-neck syndrome 


5- 


Toxic arthritis or rheumatism. 


present. 


6. 


Rheumatoid arthritis. 


The toxic and 


7- 


Arthritis following acute specific 


infective 




fevers, e.g. measles, scarlet 


group. 




fever, enteric, mumps, in- 
fluenza. 




8. 


(?) Thyroid arthritis or rheu- 




- 


matism 


Group C 


9- 


Traumatic arthritis. 


(not rheumatic) 







Group D. 
lo. Osteo- 
arthritis. 



Of these conditions some are comparatively rare. Gonor- 
rhoeal arthritis — a bad name, for it is much more than an 
arthritis, though gonorrhceal rheumatism is worse — is ex- 
ceedingly common, though it is not uncommonly overlooked. 
A slight attack may occur early after infection and pass 
unnoticed, and yet the disease may be troublesome ten or 
twenty years later, when the gonorrhoea has been forgotten. 
Post-dysenteric arthritis is also quite a common complaint. 

Arthritis may be associated intimately with hyper- 
thyroidism, and in some cases it would really appear as if 
the thyroid poison were the actual cause of the arthritis. 

Whether arthritis due to hyperthyroidism is uncommon 
or not the present writer cannot state, as it is not a generally 



"RHEUMATIC" DISEASES 139 

recognized condition, ^ and may have been overlooked, but 
he saw two cases during his last six months at Rotorua 
which appeared to be of this origin or in which at any rate 
the thyroid condition influenced the arthritis profoundly. 
The clinical history of the last case is as under. 

Hyperthyroid Arthritis (?). — Miss M., aged i8. Father 
definitely gouty. No previous acute rheumatism. Trouble 
started gradually in left forefinger from no apparent cause : 
a few months ago the right knee became affected. On 
examination, October 1918, there was considerable swelling 
and soft thickening of the metacarpo-phalangeal joint of 
the left forefinger ; pulpy swelling of the right knee and 
toes and ankles of both feet ; temporo-maxillary joints and 
back of neck painful. The joints did not grate, but were 
painful, especially with changes of weather. There was a 
slight soft goitre. Lungs normal. Heart : dulness and 
sounds normal, but some tachycardia. X-ray of joints 
negative. As the jaws and back of neck were affected, I 
was convinced that the case was not rheumatic, and the 
X-ray negatived acute rheumatoid arthritis. The patient 
was under observation for a prolonged period, and I exhausted 
my ingenuity in treatment. Baths, massage, aspirin, oil 
of wintergreen, were absolutely ineffectual. In view of the 
family histor}^ colchicum was tried, with a like result. Begin- 
ning to suspect the thyroid, I applied an ice-bag ^ to the 
goitre, with no effect. The patient went home and returned 
for a further course in April 1919. The joint condition 
was worse, the general health excellent, but the pulse was 
96, and the systolic blood pressure 110-115 min. Still 
suspecting the thyroid, oleate of iodine was applied cau- 
tiously to the joints, but with no result. Bearing in mind 
the occasional beneficial results of suprarenal extract ' in 

1 Cf . " Hyperthyroidism and Rheumatism," Poynton, B.M.J ., March 29, 
1919. The connexion between Graves' disease and rheumatoid arthritis 
has long been noted, cf. Llewellyn Jones, Arthritis Deformans. 

2 The other case cleared up promptly with applications of ice to the 
thyroid when aU other measures failed. 

' Theoretically of course adrenalin should be contra-indicated in 
hyperthyroidism. 



140 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

exophthalmic goitre, adrenahn 10-15 minims i in 2,000 
solution was then given twice a day on the mucous membrane 
of the lip. On May 2 the joints were much better, the pulse 
had fallen to 80, the blood pressure remained unaltered. On 
May 17, when last I saw the patient before leaving New 
Zealand, the joints were very much better, the pulse 72, 
and the blood pressure still unaltered. 

Acute Rheumatism. — An acute specific disease, almost 
certainly due to invasion by micro-organisms. The limb 
joints are most frequently affected, but not usually the 
temporo-maxillary joints or the cervical spine. As there 
is practically no controversy about the classification of 
this disease, we can omit discussion of its other character- 
istics, such as endocarditis. 

Chronic Rheumatism. — Personally, if I make a diagnosis 
of chronic rheumatism, it is usually with a query and an 
apology to myself for having failed to make a diagnosis 
at all. There are cases with antecedent acute rheumatism 
that appear fairly to deserve this title, but they are vastly 
outnumbered by those of whose aetiology we are ignorant. 

Fibrositis is a symptom and not a disease, and may be 
due to gout, rheumatism, auto-intoxication, or any of a 
dozen toxaemias. It is roughly equivalent to the term 
" muscular rheumatism." 

Gout, which may be acute or chronic, is an intoxication 
with certain products of proteid metabolism, with the 
possible role of micro-organisms still in dispute ; but as its 
place in classification is fairly stable, there is no need to 
discuss its problems here. 

Rheumatoid Arthritis. — A subacute to acute infection, 
the actual micro-organism being still a matter of dispute. 
It is characterized by selection of sex, age, and joints, 
by profound trophic disturbances, while the X-ray picture 
is distinctive. Thus it is commonest in women, either young 
or at the climacteric ; it causes a soft spindle swelling, 
peri- articular and articular, of the middle joints of the 
fingers and of the wrists, but less often of the thumbs, and. 




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"RHEUMATIC" DISEASES 141 

whatever other joints are affected, it always attacks either 
the temporo-maxillary joints or the back of the neck, or 
both. This selection of the jaws and neck is absolutely 
characteristic of the toxic and infective arthrites, except 
acute rheumatism. The X-ray picture of a hand shows 
typical rarefaction of the ends of the phalanges at the inter- 
phalangeal joints (vide fig. 83). 

Gonorrhceal Arthritis. — In addition to large joints, such 
as the knee, there is selection of the jaws and back of the 
neck in nearly every case. There is a tendency to the 
formation of spurs from the os calcis into the plantar fascia, 
which is characteristic though not pathognomonic (fig. 84). 
The clinical picture of the hands may be indistinguishable 
sometimes from that of acute rheumatoid arthritis, but 
the X-ray picture is very different. As a rule the bones 
look normal, but in quite a large proportion of the cases 
there is a characteristic apparent obliteration of the inter- 
phalangeal joint cavity, generally in one finger only. This 
obliteration is not due to anchylosis, for the joint may be 
quite flexible, nor is it proportionate to the severity of the 
arthritis. It would appear to be due to atrophy of the 
articular cartilages, and though of course such atrophy 
may occur in other forms of arthritis, its appearance in the 
finger is suggestive (vide diagram, fig. 85). 

Fibrositis, bursitis, etc., are frequent concomitant symp- 
toms, and there is often a characteristic careworn facies. 

Dysenteric Arthritis. — This, like all the other toxic 
arthrites, affects the jaw and back of neck in nearly every 
case. Clinically it is indistinguishable from gonorrhceal 
arthritis, and is equally difficult to treat, but apparently 
it never causes a plantar spur as does gonorrhoea, nor does 
the X-ray picture so frequently show apparent joint oblitera- 
tion. I first came across and described three cases of this 
condition in 1904, when dysentery was endemic, and occasion- 
ally epidemic, in Rotorua. With a new water supply it 
almost disappeared. Occasional cases of dysenteric arthritis 
cropped up at long intervals, but on the return of the troops 



142 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

• 

invalided from Gallipoli, where dysentery was rampant, 
dysenteric arthritis became one of the commonest complaints 
we had to treat. The disease appears to be a toxic arthritis 
due to bacillary infection, either primary or secondary to 
amoebic dysentery, and, as in the case of gonorrhoeal arthritis, 
it is probable that there is often a mixed infection. 

Scarlatina, Measles, Mumps, Influenza, Enteric. — A few cases 
of arthritis consequent on all these infections are seen from 
time to time at Rotorua. The description of gonorrhoeal or 
dysenteric arthritis would apply roughly to all of them, and 
in every case that I have seen there was involvement of the 
temporo-maxillary joints or the back of the neck, or both. 
In no case, however, did I find a plantar spur or an altered 
X-ray picture. 

It wiU be seen, then, that if a case has the jaws and neck 
affected one can pretty confidently assert that it is neither 
rheumatic nor gouty. 

Traumatic Arthritis is generally monarticular, and, like 
occupational arthritis, which is really only a sub-class of 
traumatic arthritis, and which is often polyarticular, tends 
rapidly to pass into osteo-arthritis. 

Tubercular Arthritis hardly comes within the scope of 
our present discussion. 

Osteo-arthritis I regard as a " mechanical " condition, 
the common end to which all cases of arthritis, with the 
exception of such things as tubercle and pyaemia, tend ; 
as an effort of Nature, somewhat misguided if you will, 
to effect a cure. I would sharply define this condition, 
with its eburnation and its callus-suggesting exostoses, 
produced in obedience to obvious mechanical laws, from 
rheumatoid arthritis, which is a destructive and not a 
constructive process. In any joint that has been seriously 
damaged, whether by gout, rheumatism, injury, or occupa- 
tion, which latter is only another way of putting " repeated 
small injuries in one direction," osteo-arthritis is the eventual 
result. In occupational arthritis the form of the resultant 
osteo-arthritis depends upon the nature of the occupation. 



"RHEUMATIC" DISEASES 143 

and may be foretold ; or, conversely, the nature of a man's 
occupation may sometimes be deduced from the post- 
mortem examination of his joints. The amount of new bone 
formation would appear to be an index of the vitality and 
reactive power of the individual.^ 

If this scheme of classification be adopted, at any rate 
provisionally, it will be found that there are fewer cases 
about which one is seriously in doubt as to diagnosis. 

Thus a doubtful case will be, as a rule, either gouty 
or rheumatic, or one of the toxic group. If the jaws 
and back of the neck are affected, it is practically certain 
to be a toxic case, and ninety-nine times out of a hundred 
either rheumatoid or gonorrhoeal. The former may be 
distinguished by the general clinical picture and by the 
atrophic thinned bone- ends in the X-ray picture, the latter 
by the history and, sometimes, by the appearance of a 
pseudo-anchylosis of a finger in the .X-ray picture or the 
occasional detection of a plantar spur, or finally, and this 
a by no means decisive test, reaction to vaccine. 

Further, it wiU be found a good general rule that all 
those cases in which the temporo-maxillary joint is affected — 
that is, all toxic cases — require essentially tonic treatment : 
fresh air, sunshine, abundant good food, tonic waters, tonic 
baths, and tonic medicines. 

1 Sir Arbuthnot Lane. 



^^ 



CHAPTER XII 



SPAS SUITABLE FOR INDIVIDUAL CASES 



It would be exceedingly convenient if a table could be drawn 
up showing what spa, what water, what particular bath, 
is indicated in such-and-such a complaint, exceedingly 
convenient, but, except on broad lines and with many 
reservations, impossible. 

The general indications for, and general scope of, spa 
treatment are elsewhere touched on (p. 225). Mineral- 
water treatment affords a reasonable hope, when often there 
is no other hope, of breaking the vicious circle of disordered 
metabolism, and may be utilized as a preventive measure in 
cases in which, while there are departures from the normal 
in the matter of function, actual organic changes are not 
yet discernible ; it is indicated as a remedial, arresting, or 
corrective measure during the course of chronic disease, 
in which, while organic changes have taken place, yet the 
machine is not so far crippled that it may not again be made 
to work with reasonable smoothness ; and, finally, in the 
late stages of chronic disease, when organic changes have 
so far progressed that repair is hopeless, it may be used as 
a sedative measure, may soothe pain, diminish stiffness, 
promote general comfort, and, in a word, render tolerable 
an existence wliich has become almost intolerable. 

It is necessary, however, even at the risk of seeming 

dogmatism, to leave the vague region of generalities, and to 

be as explicit as the nature of our subject, chronic disease, 

will permit, merely accentuating once again the point 

that, while we are forced to label our patient with the 

name of a disease, it is the patient that we have to treat, 

144 



SPAS SUITABLE FOR INDR'IDUAL CASES 145 

the patient with his own microcosm of idiosyncrasies, 
physical and psychical, and not the disease. 

Gout. — Cases of gout in the acute stage, or with an acute 
attack immediately threatening, should not be sent to a 
spa. For some weeks after an attack, the time varying 
with the individual, the patient should be treated on ordinary 
medical lines, and he should rather be prepared for a course 
of mineral waters. As already pointed out, a course of 
baths and waters tends to cause an initial exacerbation 
of symptoms in most diseases, and this is especially true 
of gout. 

The " old-fashioned " kind of gout of which one saw so 
much in England twenty or thirty years ago, and of which one 
sees so little in New Zealand, with great tophaceous masses, 
and fulminating attacks in the joints, requires wholly 
different handling from the kind more often seen now. 

It is convenient therefore to divide, for purposes of 
treatment, cases of gout into two main groups : 

{a) The sthenic, plethoric group. This type is familiar : 
the patient is generally a man of middle age, robust, and 
often stout, who has " lived well," eaten and drunk heartily, 
has had periodic attacks of acute gout in the great toes, 
the fingers, or the elbows, with a vigorous and perhaps 
open-air life in between. 

Such a patient, put without precautions straight on to 
full balneological treatment, is pretty sure to get an acute 
attack within the first week. He requires dieting and 
purgative waters, and unfortunately it is in good purgative 
waters that New Zealand is most deficient. 

The best plan is to send him, after prehminary treatment, 
to Te Aroha, there to start with graduated doses of the 
cold magnesia waters, followed after a week, if the gout 
remains quiescent, with a graduated course of the thermal 
alkahne waters from Spring No. 8 or No. 15, combined with 
subthermal baths (93°-95° F.). Later he may venture 
into a more stimulating bath, such as No. 2, and finally, 
and if necessary, proceed to Rotorua. Here again he 
10 



146 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

must " feel his way," taking warm baths at first rather 
than hot, and drinking either Te Aroha or Rachel -water, 
unless the latter causes indigestion. He should avoid 
too vigorous measures, and if any massage is used it should 
be gentle and sedative. 

Such cases also do well at Kamo. Here the same pre- 




FiG. 86.— TOPHACEOUS MASSES IN THE HAND OF 
A MAORI. 

cautions should be adopted in starting the course, and, as 
the waters are diuretic and not purgative, saline aperients 
should be taken in addition. The subthermal effervescing 
bath is of course very much more stimulating than the 
baths at Te Aroha, and needs to be taken with the greater 
caution. 

Cases requiring a mild and sedative climate, especially, 
for instance, those with a tendency to asthma and bronchitis. 



SPAS SUITABLE FOR INDIMDUAL CASES 147 

may with advantage be sent to Waiwera or Helexsville, 
both of which have sahne waters. The former has the 
advantage of most charming surroundings, but the dis- 
advantages of no railway and no resident doctor. 

While dealing with the subject of acquired plethoric 
gout, it is an interesting point to observe how rare acute 
and tophaceous gout is amongst the Maori race, although 
the scourge is by no means unmerited in many instances. 
I have, howev^er, seen one or two cases (vide fig. 86). 

{b) Asthenic gout. This is much more common in New 
Zealand, and is almost as common in women as in men. 
There is generally a family history of gout, and the sufferer 
is frequently dyspeptic. Attacks are subacute only, and 
there is a greater tendency to chronic ill-health and to 
manifestations of gout in situations other than joints and 
bursae. Beyond an excessive consumption of meat, tea, 
and sweets, a universal sin in New Zealand, the disease 
is the misfortune rather than the fault of the patient, 
and as regards alcohol the majority of the sufferers are 
teetotalers. 

Such cases require wholly different treatment from the 
plethoric type. The diet should be generous, but with due 
regard to the digestion, and alcohol is not necessarily for- 
bidden ; fresh air, sunshine, and cheerful but restful sur- 
roundings should be part of the spa treatment, and sulphur 
waters are especially indicated. 

Such cases do well at Rotorua, taking a course of baths 
cautiously increased in strength, e.g. Rachel at body 
temperature, followed by Old Priest if weather permits, 
New Priest, Aix, and finally Postmaster ; but each case 
has to be graduated according to individual reaction. 

In regard to drinking the waters,if the Rachel water agrees, 
it should be started in small doses, and gradually increased ; 
if it disagrees, then Te Aroha water may be substituted. 

Some cases do well with the carbonated mild chalybeate 
waters of Kamo. 

Rheumatism. — -There is probably no mineral spring in 



148 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

the civilized world, and certainly no thermal spring, which 
has not at some time or other been esteemed as " good for 
rheumatism." In a sense the claim is justifiable, for, in 
view of the loose manner in which the term " rheumatism " 
is used, not only by the public, but even by ourselves, it 
means no more than a remark that vague chronic pains 
of ill-defined origin are benefited by balneological treatment. 
It behoves us, therefore, to define our terms and to clarify 
our conception of rheumatism (cf. p. 140). 

We are all agreed as to the clinical meaning of acute 
rheumatism or rheumatic fever, though by no means so 
agreed as to its setiology. Assuming, however, the disease 
to be due to an invasion by micro-organisms, ^ it is obviously 
impossible to separate the milder infection of a subacute 
attack from the acute specific fever. On the other hand, 
it is sometimes exceedingly difiicult to differentiate between 
a subacute attack due to rheumatic and to other toxins. 
The test of reaction to salicylates is of very doubtful value, 
as symptoms of most varied origin are relieved by the same 
drug, and the test of reaction to vaccines is by no means 
certain. In subacute and chronic cases we are driven 
at present to rely chiefly on the clinical picture, and more 
especially on the election of certain joints by toxins, and the 
X-ray appearances (vide fig. 85). 

Under acute rheumatism, then, we include subacute attacks 
and the very atypical attacks that occur in childhood, 
but which nevertheless cause endocarditis. All such cases 
are, during the attack, of course unfit for any spa treatment. 

Convalescence from Acute Rheumatism. — At this stage, 
however, balneological treatment may do immense good. 
Indeed, I have found such cases amongst the most satis- 
factory of all the many thousands that passed through our 
hands at Rotorua, provided that at least a month were 
permitted to elapse between the last rise of temperature 

1 Poynton and Paine, Streptococcus Rheumaticus. For a complete 
bibliography of the subject see Guy's Hospital Reports, vol. 45, p. 193 
(Sandison). 



SPAS SUITABLE FOR INDIVIDUAL CASES 149 

and the commencement of treatment. The principal com- 
plicating factor is the presence of endocarditis, and when 
this is recent, and coupled with anaemia, balneological 
treatment is contra-indicated, though spa treatment is not. 

Such cases improve wonderfully with change of environ- 
ment, and especially with a dry sunny climate, but require 
careful medical supervision. Thus the choice of a spa 
will depend partly on the time of year and partly on the 
necessary factor of medical attendance. It is not safe to 
send- such patients to a spot, otherwise suitable, but too 
far from a doctor to make medical supervision effectual. 
On the whole, either Rotorua or Haxmer is to be recom- 
mended, except in the winter, when Hanmer may be too 
cold for a patient unable to take vigorous exercise. Cases 
in which the anaemia is the most prominent feature will 
do weU at Kamo, but special arrangements must here be 
made for medical attendance ; and if baths are given, very 
special precautions must be taken (vide Kamo, p. 130). 

Ordinary cases of convalescence from rheumatic fever, 
with perhaps a slight mitral murmur and good compensa- 
tion, may be sent to Rotorua with every confidence, pro- 
vided that they are put strictly into the doctor's hands and 
not allowed, as so many do, to treat themselves. A graduated 
course, beginning with small doses of Rachel water and, 
in summer, the subthermal effervescent Priest bath, with an 
open-air life, regulated exercise, and a generous diet, will 
improve the condition in a most gratifying manner. The 
effect of hot acid baths in improving the blood content 
has been alread^^ noted (page 79). 

Chronic Rheumatisin. — This term is so universal that it 
cannot well be omitted from a useful list, but at the same 
time is so abused that one hesitates to use it at all. The 
term is here used to indicate a chronic or recurrent arthritis, 
fibrositis, or bursitis in patients who have at one time had 
acute rheumatism or who have a strongly rheumatic family 
history. Such cases do well at almost any spa, especially 
those in which hot stimulating baths are available. Thus 



150 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

they may be sent to Haxmer, Te Aroha, Helensville, 
Te Puia, or MoRERE, or may take the hot piscinae of Taupo 
or Wairakei, but the place par excellence for them is 
RoTORUA, and, if they can stand it, the Postmaster bath. 
Later they will probably benefit by the Aix douche. 

Lumbago and Sciatica. — These are obviously symptoms 
and not diseases, and may or may not be rheumatic or gouty. 
Both are frequently traumatic, and still more frequently 
occupational, and both benefit rapidly as a rule by spa 
treatment. The milder forms may be sent to any of the 
spas recommended for chronic rheumatism, but many cases, 
especially of sciatica, are extremely obstinate, and require 
specialized treatment : indeed, I do not know of any class 
of case about which it is more unsafe to make an early 
prognosis. 

Such patients should be sent to Rotorua, where not only 
are there the most potent baths, but where every possible 
alternative treatment is available. The means usually 
adopted are the Priest bath with the undercurrent douche, 
the Postmaster bath, the revulsive douche in the Aix bath, 
and various electrical treatments, such as the anode along 
the course of the nerve, fine faradic or sinusoidal currents, 
as in the electric bath, and counter-irritation by the vacuum 
electrode of the high-frequency apparatus. In addition, 
stretching and loosening of adhesions, and sedative massage, 
as advocated by Mennell, aid, and are aided by baths. The 
actual line of treatment followed will of course largely 
depend upon whether the condition is a neuralgia, a neuritis, 
or a perineuritis. 

In definitely gouty cases it may be advisable to send the 
patient for a course of the waters at Te Aroha. 

Neuritis. — This being as a rule a symptom only and the 
effect of many diverse causes, will require as diverse treat- 
ment, but the majority of cases do better under spa 
treatment than at home. 

Our object must be to remove the cause, to ensure rest, 
and prevent deformity, and, finally, to restore function 



SPAS SUITABLE FOR INDIVIDUAL CASES 151 

both to the nerve and to any muscles it may supply. To 
attempt the last object before ensuring the preceding ones 
is only to court failure. The cause may be a mineral poison 
such as lead, a simple organic chemical poison such as 
alcohol or tobacco, a toxin such as that of diphtheria or 
influenza, or it may be traumatic. 

Epidemic Neuritis. — During the years 1916-1918 a wave 
of neuritis in epidemic form spread over the whole of New 
Zealand. There appeared to be no antecedent specific 
disease, and the onset was often acute, and generally in 
one arm. The sufferers, who were of both sexes, but more 
frequently women, were generally " run down " with anxiety 
and war-work, and in many instances had done an in- 
ordinate amount of knitting ; but in many cases there 
was no discoverable cause whatever, so that, in view of the 
great number of the cases and their widespread distribution, 
one was driven to look upon the epidemic as one of acute 
infective disease. Sometimes a single nerve, such as the 
ulnar, was alone affected, but more often it was a definitely 
brachial-plexus neuritis, and occasionally there were symp- 
toms of root lesion. The left arm was affected more often 
than the right. 

Cases of neuritis must be sent to a spa where they can 
have constant medical supervision, and for this reason 
RoTORUA is preferable to one of the smaller spas. The 
essential treatment is rest to the part, e.g. the arm in a 
broad-arm sling, subthermal baths, and, when available, 
a diuretic water ; so that mild cases may do well at Kamo or 
Waiwera. In later stages a more stimulating bath, such 
as the Priest at Rotorua, may be substituted, and electrical 
treatment started. This opens up the whole vexed question 
of the direct value of electrical treatment on nerve, and the 
reader is referred to page 259. The value of the counter- 
irritant use of electricity, for instance in the form of the 
vacuum electrode, is, however, undoubted, and, in bad 
motor-nerve cases, prolonged treatment of the muscles with 
interrupted galvanism or the Bristow battery, according 



152 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

to the presence or absence of R.D., is almost essential : 
again, pain may be relieved by ionization. 

At quite an early stage very gentle and sedative effleurage 
may be used with advantage, but on no account whatever 
must such cases be sent to a masseur with the simple direc- 
tion that they are " to have massage." In no cases that 
come to a spa is there more urgent need for experienced and 
skilled medical supervision. 

Neuralgia. — In cases in which the medical attendant has 
satisfied himself that there is no organic cause, the patient 
may be sent to a bracing upland place, such as Taupo or 
Wairakei or Hanmer, being merely cautioned to avoid 
excess of hot baths. The open-air life, sunshine, and interest- 
ing thermal " sights " may do the rest. If this fails, the 
patient should go to Rotorua for special treatment, generally 
electric counter-irritation and soothing applications, such 
as mud baths or cool low-pressure douches. Some cases 
derive most benefit from cold applications, such as a cold 
douche to the spine, or the Scotch douche ; others, however, 
are wholly unable to bear cold. I have seen sometimes 
great benefit result from a filiform douche along the course 
of the nerve. 

Cases of causalgia, with which we have unfortunately 
become familiar as the result of gunshot wound of nerve, 
are exacerbated by hot baths and require subthermal or 
even cold-water treatment. 

Hysteria.— The treatment of this condition is of course 
psychic, and the suggestive influence of spa treatment is 
a powerful aid. Such measures as the Scotch douche at 
Rotorua or electrical treatment are also available, but it 
must be remembered that more depends upon the doctor 
wielding the instrument than on the instrument itself, and 
there is a danger, especially amongst self-treating patients, 
of spa treatment welding their fetters yet more firmly. 

Neurasthenia. — Spa treatment is particularly valuable. 
The change of environment, the change of habit of living, 
and the mere rest, apart from all treatment, may alone 



SPAS SUITABLE FOR INDIVIDUAL CASES 153 

effect a cure. One has to be careful, however, that the 
provocative cause is not carried with him by the patient to 
his new surrounding. Mild cases may be sent to the cool 
effervescing baths at Kamo, but most, as a rule, will do 
better at a spa where there is more to see and more going on, 
such as RoTORUA. The treatment there for cases that 
require stimulation is the Scotch douche and various elec 
trical applications, or, for those needing more sedative 
treatment, the subthermal Old Priest bath or the electric 
bath. In either case hot baths should be used with caution, 
and cool applications are more often indicated. 

Mild cases may do better with climatic treatment, either 
a completely sedative resort such as Waiwera or a 
stimulating one such as Taupo, Hanmer, or, better still, 
Mt. Cook. 

Insomnia.- — Here we have first to determine the cause, and 
spa treatment may or may not be indicated. It is no use 
sending a patient with insomnia and high blood-pressure 
due to tobacco to take a course of waters if he also takes 
his pipe with him. Many cases, however, do improve with 
subthermal baths and a course of eliminative waters, such 
as Kamo, or the Old Priest bath at Rotorua ; while others 
do better with a sedative station such as Waiwera, Helens- 
viLLE, or Te Aroha. Should there be definite high blood- 
pressure and no organic disease, the patient should be sent 
to Rotorua for special treatment of that condition (vide 

P- 155). 

Organic Disease of the Nervous System. — Cases of central 

organic disease that can reasonably be expected to improve 
with spa treatment are obviously comparatively few, but 
still there is more to be done than would at first sight be 
expected. Treatment lies in two directions : it can be 
prophylactic or it can be compensatory. The former treat- 
ment resolves itself into measures designed to avoid a 
repetition of disaster ; thus, in a case of cerebral haemor- 
rhage it means reduction of blood-pressure and elimination 
of toxins : the latter means education of other muscles 



154 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

or groups of muscles to compensate for those lost, together 
with, when possible, the recuperation of paresed muscles. 

Such treatment demands not only a suitable spa, but 
a specially equipped establishment of doctor, attendants, 
and appliances, and cases needing it should therefore be 
sent to RoTORUA. 

Hemiplegia. — Such cases, especially if due to haemorrhage, 
should not be sent until from one to three months after the 
stroke. They are given subthermal baths, with special 
precautions against hurry, bustle, and worry, both in and 
after the bath. Diet and habits are attended to, and gentle 
massage and electrical treatment may be added. If the 
blood-pressure be high, attempt is made to reduce it in the 
manner stated below. 

Locomotor Ataxia and other Spinal Paralyses.— We have 
here an example of compensatory treatment. 

In these cases not only may lightning pains and crises 
be relieved by subthermal baths, but there are often long 
periods during which the disease appears to be at a stand- 
still, and these periods may be utilized in re-educating the 
muscles of the lower limbs by exercises teaching co-ordina- 
tion. Such exercises need great patience and intelligence 
on the part of the instructor as well as perseverance on the 
part of the patient : the results, however, are often sur- 
prisingly good. One little practical point I would like 
to bring forward. If the patient in ordinary life will carry 
a heavy walking-stick horizontally in two hands like a 
balancing-pole, he will greatly lessen his ataxia, and the 
position is not very conspicuous. By so doing he may get 
balancing sense through spinal centres above his lesion. 
Treatment at present can only be obtained at Rotorua. 

Vaso-motor Disturbances. — Cold extremities, chilblains, 
and mild Raynaud's disease benefit from the use of the 
Priest and Postmaster baths at Rotorua. These are used 
hot to the body generally, and, in addition, the hottest 
Postmaster bath (i09°-ii2° F.) may be ordered locally. 
Massage, especially faradic massage, is used as an adjunct. 



SPAS SUITABLE FOR INDIVIDUAL CASES 155 

High Blood- pressure. — I have seen the systolic pressure fall 
steadily under a course of combined high-frequency current 
and radium- emanation water, often from 200 or 230 mm. 
to 160 or 180. RoTORUA is the only spa in New Zealand 
at which this treatment can be followed. Diet and regula- 
tion of habits must of course also be attended to, sub- 
thermal baths of prolonged duration given, and perhaps 
footbaths in the hottest Postmaster bath. 

Cases of early arterio-sclerosis with hyper- tonus, of the 
plethoric t3'pe, might take the waters at Te Aroha, but 
avoiding the hot baths ; while the spare dyspeptic type 
would benefit by Waiwera or Helensville. 

Low Blood-pressure, and Hypo-tonus. — Comparatively cool 
baths should be given, such as the effervescing Priest baths at 
Rotorua or the natural bath at Kamo, while the circulation 
should be encouraged by massage and stimulating douches. 

Heart Disease. — In cases of insufficient compensation, with 
flabby heart muscle, improvement may often be obtained 
by some form of Nauheim treatment. In this the " skin 
heart " (vide p. 250) is stimulated by effervescing baths, 
and graduated resistance exercises are given. These baths, 
in somewhat attenuated form, can be given at Rotorua 
in the old Priest bath, while the exercises are part of the 
usual routine there. Much better results should be obtained 
at Kamo, whose waters are ideal for the purpose, but it 
would not be safe to send such patients there in the present 
state of the spa's development. It need hardly be added 
that no cases that have recently suffered from endocarditis 
should take spa treatment. 

Glycosuria. — Cases of true diabetes are, as a rule, un- 
likely, especially in young subjects, to benefit by mineral- 
water treatment ; but those of gouty glycosuria do well at 
Te Aroha, provided that they are under proper super- 
vision as to diet. A certain proportion of glycosurics, and 
even of true diabetic patients, appear to benefit in marvellous 
fashion from drinking radium- emanation water ; this can 
be obtained at Rotorua. 



156 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Dyspepsia. — Patients suffering from dyspepsia, the result 
of too much and too pungent food and drink, require a 
spa where can be combined a purgative water, exercise, and 
dieting ; in such resorts New Zealand is unhappily lacking. 
On the whole they are best sent to Rotorua for douche 
massage and a regulation of diet to which they will perhaps 
not submit at home. 

Obese and congested subjects, especially if with hyper- 
acidity, should go to Te Aroha. For the thin, nervous, 
atonic dyspeptic with hypo-acidity the waters of Kamo or 
Waiwera may be advised. 

Obesity. — The florid, plethoric obese may be benefited by 
Te Aroha, with of course diet and exercise ; the anaemic, 
atonic obese would do better with the baths of Kamo, 
when these are made safer than at present. In the mean- 
time, massage and cool douches at Rotorua, followed 
perhaps by the use of the Bergonie apparatus there, would 
be the best that can be done. I have, however, seen most 
extraordinary reductions of weight take place from a course 
of mud baths at Rotorua. All hyperthermal measures 
for the treatment of obesity should, however, be followed 
by cold applications. 

Constipation. — As already noted, there are no true purga- 
tive waters in New Zealand.' Mild, laxative magnesium 
bicarbonate waters, however, may be obtained at Te Aroha, 
and there is a pleasant, cool magnesia spring at present in 
private hands at Paeroa. Constipation with atonic dys- 
pepsia may also be relieved by the Scdine waters of Waiwera 
or Helensville. 

More serious cases, however, can be treated at Rotorua. 
Thus atonic cases should take the subthermal Old Priest 
bath, cold Sitz baths, the Aix douche, massage, and electrical 
treatment of the abdomen, and the special exercises for 

* The Okain's Bay water from Banks' Peninsula is a strongly purgative 
magnesium chloride water, but is practically useless on account of the 
huge amount it contains of calcium and iron salts. There are also mild, 
laxative magnesium waters around Lyttelton Harbour. 



SPAS SUITABLE FOR INDIVIDUAL CASES 157 

constipation, with of course dieting. Others, in which there 
is fullness and irritation of the colon, may be treated at 
RoTORUA by the Plombieres douche, followed by a sedative 
bath and the submassive douche to the abdomen. 

Biliary Calculus. — Mild cases may do well at Te Aroha, 
and nearly all cases after operation are benefited by a course 
of these alkaline waters (cf. p. 117). Cases of chronic 
hepatic derangement, with a tendency to constipation and 
slight jaundice, should take the cold magnesia waters 
from No. 21 Spring. 

Renal Calculus. — As stone in the kidney consists as a 
rule principally of calcium oxalate or phosphate, alkaline 
waters are contra-indicated (cf. p. 117), but the diuretic 
waters of Kamo, taken very freely, may well be beneficial 
in some cases. 

Vesical Calculus.— Stone in the bladder may consist of 
almost pure uric acid, and here the alkaline waters of Te 
Aroha may be most strongly recommended. Cases of 
cystitis with alkaline urine should, however, avoid Te 
Aroha and go to Kamo. 

Nephritis. — Cases of early nephritis may benefit by spa 
treatment. They require a mild sedative climate, and should 
avoid sodium chloride waters, taking rather sulphide or 
calcium waters, and warm rather than hot baths. In the 
summer they may be sent to RoTORUA,but, unless the weather 
is warm, Kamo would be more suitable at other seasons, 
with a warmer and more equable climate and calcium waters. 

Syphilis. — Sulphur waters are said to increase the intensive 
action of mercury, and a few cases of syphilis are therefore 
from time to time sent to Rotorua. The action of sulphur, 
in spite of the undoubtedly deserved reputation of Aix- 
la-Chapelle, is in this matter still suh judice (cf. p. 71). 

Anaemia. — Cases of simple anaemia and chlorosis may be 
treated by the administration of chalybeate waters by the 
mouth, or by tonic baths, or by both. Thus Kamo offers 
mild chalybeate waters combined with powerfully stimula- 
lating carbonic acid baths, and, with due precautions as to 



158 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

bathing, is eminently suitable, if combined with laxatives. 
The cold springs at Te Aroiia, those situated outside the 
public gardens, contain ferrous bicarbonate in varying 
amounts up to 4-5 grains per gallon, and a considerable 
amount of free carbonic acid. In anaemic cases, however, the 
hotter baths should, as a rule, be avoided, and the patient 
should take only brief immersion in one of the cooler 
" natural " baths. There are numerous other chalybeate 
springs in New Zealand, some of them of great strength, 
but, as a rule, either the iron is not present in an easily 
assimilated form, or no provision is made on the spot for 
invalids. For reasons already given, many cases improve 
wonderfully with a course of the cool effervescent Priest 
bath at Rotorua. 

Eczema. — Water is said to be bad for eczema, and the 
direction is frequently given to avoid washing as much as 
possible. The statement is, I believe, misleading, as it is 
only a half-truth. Water, as ordinarily applied, quite 
undoubtedly does harm to the eczematous skin, but it is 
not the wetting but the subsequent drying, especially drying 
by evaporation, that does the mischief. Prolonged immersion 
in water, especially a bland mineral water such as the 
alkaline siliceous Rachel water at Rotorua at the in- 
different temperature, will frequently do immense good, 
if precautions are taken to prevent the skin from getting 
too dry after the bath. The plan I adopted was, for dry 
cases, to use a few drops of Liq. Carbonis Detergens i in 4 
of glycerine, poured into the palm of the hand, and gently 
rubbed over the whole wet skin on coming out of the bath. 
The skin could then be wiped in the ordinary way, but 
sufficient medicament would adhere to prevent the dry and 
cracking sensation usually experienced after washing. In 
more acute cases the mud bath was used, and allowed if 
possible to dry on in a thin protective film, or the Rachel 
bath followed by a suitable ointment. All applications to 
the skin act more effectively after it has been softened by 
a warm bland bath. Other cases, especially seborrhoeic 



SPAS SUITABLE FOR INDIVIDUAL CASES 159 

cases, do better with the warm baths at Te Aroha. Of 
course it is necessary to treat at the same time any 
constitutional underlying cause such as gout, constipa- 
tion, or toxsemia, and sulphur waters internally are often 
indicated. 

Psoriasis.— The same treatment is required as for dry 
eczema. Of course there are many hopeless failures, 
but at the same time there are many more successes, and 
RoTORUA should certainly be tried. Hotter baths may be 
employed than in the case of eczema. 

Acne, Furunculosis. — Sulphur waters externally and in- 
ternally are universally recommended, and patients may 
accordingly be sent to Rotorua. My experience, however, 
of such cases is that sulphur waters are of little use. Lewis 
Jones recommended the electric bath in acne, and very 
many cases were accordingly treated by this method at 
Rotorua, using Rachel water as a medium, but with 
only occasional success. 

Convalescence from Acute Disease. — These cases as a rule 
do not require baths and waters, but rather change and 
a bracing climate. Thus, apart from seaside resorts, 
Mt. Cook, Hanmer, Mt. Egmont, Taupo, or Wairakei 
are available in the summer. In the winter Rotorua, 
Wairakei, and Taupo are probably the best available 
spots. If baths are taken they should be tonic and cool, 
so that, on the whole, the seaside is generally preferable to 
an inland spa. 

Pelvic Conditions. — Dysmenorrhoea and irritable pelvic 
conditions, menorrhagia with early fibroids, and chronic 
catarrh and leucorrhoea may be improved by sedative baths 
and climates, for instance Te Aroha, Waiwera, or Helens- 

VILLE. 

Traumatism. — Spa treatment in the form of baths, mas- 
sage, and electricity is invaluable in the after-treatment of 
numerous injuries. Thus the stiffness and disability re- 
maining after the use of splints, the atrophy of muscles 
from disuse, strains, sprains, and traumatic arthritis, may 



160 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

all be better treated at a spa than at home. For such 
cases a fully equipped spa such as Rotorua is the place 
of election. The value of physical treatment in injuries 
has long been recognized, but it was not until the great 
war that the full value of such treatment, as exemplified 
in the case of wounded soldiers, was universally established. 
Indeed, such treatment is almost in danger of over-popu- 
larity, and the impossible is sometimes expected from it. 

Senility. — While spa treatment cannot be expected to 
rejuvenate, it can do a good deal towards removing the 
causes of premature senility, and so of retarding the process. 
Thus the skin, like. other organs, tends towards glandular 
atrophy, and its normal excretory function is diminished, 
with consequent increased retention of toxins and a corre- 
sponding increase of stress on the other excretory organs, 
and on the vascular system. 

Again, coincidently with degenerative changes in the 
blood-vessels there is a similar tendency to changes in the 
elastic tissues of the skin. Clinically and aesthetically 
this change is universally recognized and familiar, but I 
venture to doubt whether its physiological effects have 
often been considered. 

The changes consist essentially of a fibrous degeneration 
of the minute unstriped muscular bundles of the skin and 
a replacement of yellow elastic by white fibrous tissue. As 
a result the elastic support of the cutaneous capillaries is 
largely lost. 

As is noted in Chapter XVI, these small muscles and the 
meshwork of yellow elastic fibres take the place in the ulti- 
mate cutaneous vessels of the muscular and elastic coats 
of the arteries, and the degeneration of these intercapillary 
tissues is strictly comparable to the degeneration of arterial 
walls. Without such elastic peripheral resistance, and with 
blood pumped into comparatively rigid pipes, the " tone " 
of the peripheral circulation is impaired, the maintenance 
of the normal blood-pressure is rendered more difficult, 
and there are back-pressure effects which react on the 



SPAS SUITABLE FOR INDIVIDUAL CASES 161 

arterial tone and on the heart muscle. In a word, the 
" skin heart " function is largely abolished. This condition 
cannot again be restored to the elasticity of youth, but, 
in the early stages, a course of massage and of alternating 
hot and cold baths and douches constitutes a measure 
of skin gymnastics that is materially prophylactic. For 
such a course Rotorua or Hanmer may be recommended. 
In more advanced cases a course of baths at about or a 
little above the indifferent temperature, and with prolonged 
immersion, followed by rest, will often do much to restore 
the action of the skin, and to equalize the balance between 
the deep and superficial circulations, to soothe irritable 
nerves, and generally to tranquillize and to rest. Quiet, 
restful surroundings and a mild equable climate are excellent 
accessory factors, as is also the drinking of eliminative 
waters. On the whole, it would be difficult to find a place 
more suitable than Waiwera. The motto in all such cases 
should, however, be festina lente. 

Rheumatoid Arthritis and the jaw-neck syndrome group, 
including Gonorrhceal arthritis, Dysenteric arthritis, etc. 
These cases all require tonic measures ; some may possibly 
require the simultaneous use of vaccines, and all require 
close medical supervision. They should therefore be sent 
either to Rotorua or Hanmer ; to the former at any time 
of year except perhaps February, to the latter in spring, 
summer, or autumn, but, as a rule, not in winter. The baths 
par excellence for these conditions are the Old Priest baths 
and the Postmaster at Rotorua, with brief immersion. 



II 



CHAPTER XIII 

CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES OF THE MINERAL 

WATERS 

1. Simple Thermal Waters. 

2. Muriated Waters : (a) Sodic Muriated ; {b) Calcic Sodic Muriated. 

3. Iodine Waters. 

4. Alkaline Waters : (a) Simple Alkaline ; {b) Muriated Alkaline. 

5. Magnesium Waters : (a) Alkaline ; (b) Muriated ; (c) Sulphated. 

6. Calcareous Waters. 

7. Chalybeate Waters. 

8. Sulphur (or Siliceous) Waters : (a) Alkaline ; (fcj Acid ; (c) Muddy. 

9. Arsenical Waters. 

10. Borated Waters. 

11. Table Waters. 

12. Mud: (a) Sulphur Siliceous; (h) Mercurial Siliceous. 

Geographical Classification. — The different classes of mineral 
waters have a certain rough general plan of geographical 
distribution, so that the probable nature of a spring may, 
to a certain extent, be inferred by its position on the map, 
though this is a rule with many exceptions, and the point 
must not be pressed too far. 

Thus, in the central pumice plateau of the North Island, 
from Mount Ruapehu in the south to Rotorua in the north — 
that is, in other words, in " the thermal district " — the 
springs are volcanic, and are very hot, sulphuretted, siliceous, 
and weakly mineralized ; in this district too, and more 
especially in certain islands of the adjacent Bay of Plenty, 
are found sulphuric acid springs, which in White Island are 
associated with hydrochloric acid of phenomenal strength. 

Along the east coast, from East Cape to Cape Palliser, 

muriated waters of high specific gravity and containing 

162 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 163 

iodides predominate. Along the same coast, from the Bay 
of Plenty northwards, weak saline waters are found ; in 
the lower Waikato valley are chiefly simple thermal 
waters ; in the Thames Valley alkaline bicarbonated 
waters, both hot and cold ; while in the limestone regions 
of the peninsula north of Auckland are waters, cold or 
slightly warm, rich in carbonic acid gas. 

The South Island is comparatively poor in mineral 
springs, and these are for the most part simple thermal 
or feebly saline waters of low specific gravity. 

Classification adopted.— At the outset one is met with 
considerable difficulties in the attempt to classify mineral 
waters, and whatever system be adopted it is open to serious 
objections. Until recently waters have generally been 
classified according to their chemical composition, or perhaps 
one might say according to their gross chemical composition. 
This method rests on the assumption that certain ingredients 
which bulk most largely in the analysis, or which from 
their therapeutic activity appear of predominating im- 
portance, determine the general character of the water 
in so far as the physician is concerned. Recent research, 
however, has made us accept this assumption only with 
grave reservations, and it is realized that other important 
factors have to be considered. . 

Bearing in mind, however, the imperfect nature of our 
knowledge of these new factors, it would seem unsatis- 
factory and misleading at present to express analyses in 
terms of ions or electrical conductivity or radio-activity, 
and ordinary chemical constitution has alone been considered 
here.i 

^ The following classified list of waters is based almost entirely on the 
analyses recorded in the reports of the Dominion Museum and Laboratory 
published by the New Zealand Government between the years 1902 and 
1919, and of these a large proportion of the more important in recent 
years have been made by Dr. Maclaurin, Dominion Analyst. On account 
of the space which would be required to give the full detailed analysis 
of each specimen, only the essential and characteristic ingredients and the 
total grains per gallon of solid constituents are given here. In all cases, ' 



164 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

In a work such as this, intended primarily for the guidance 
of medical men in actual practice, the essential feature 
of any system of classification should be its practical 
utility, and the nomenclature adopted here, while manifestly 
at best a compromise,' is that most familiar to medical 
men, and at any rate affords a serviceable classification 
for medical purposes. 

In schemes of classification it is difficult to resist the 
temptation to subdivision, and classes of lithium and of 
aluminous waters might reasonably have been admitted. 
While noting the presence of these salts, however, the waters 
have been classed under the heading of what appeared to 
be more important ingredients, as in the case of the lithium 
in the Te Aroha waters, and of the alum in the acid and 
sulphated waters. 

For the sake of comparison, a well-known example of 
European mineral water is given witli each class, except 
of course in those rare instances in which a New Zealand 
water has no corresponding European prototype. 

CLASS I. SIMPLE THERMAL WATERS 

These constitute a somewhat indefinite group of waters 
characterized by weak mineralization. Obviously it tends 
to shade off at one extremity into any one of the other 

however, in which the analyses have been taken from the above reports 
the year is also given to facilitate reference should fuller details be required. 
For further information on this subject the reader is referred to the paper 
by Mr. W. Skey in the Transactions of the N.Z. Institute, iSjy, to several 
published pamphlets by Mr. J. A. Pond, and to the article by the late Sir 
James Hector in the Official Year Book, 1S93. The names Skey, Pond, and 
Hector at the head of an analysis have reference solely to the above- 
mentioned papers. 

1 Dr. Peale (Cohen's System of Physiologic Therapeutics) devised a more 
accurately descriptive system, theoretically most excellent ; but such 
uncouth strings of adjectives as " carbonated-sulphated-calcic-magnesic- 
chalybeate " seem too cumbersome for everyday use. The classification 
adopted by Weber (Climatotherapy and Balneotherapy, London, 1907) has 
been followed here, amplified in the case of unfamiliar indigenous waters 
by the use of a modification of Peale's system. 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 165 

groups, so that a particular water may be classified by one 
authority as " simple thermal," by another as " saline," 
and so on. 

Such waters are largely used both for drinking purposes 
and as baths. Taken internally they act as depuratives, 
mechanically flushing out the system, and are indicated in 
chronic arthritic diseases, more especially when associated 
with constipation and toxaemia. 

It may reasonably be asked why, under such conditions, 
trouble to go to a spa, why not drink plain water at home ? 
The answer is that " there is a great deal of human nature 
in man." A patient will readily and conscientiously take 
a course of such waters at a spa, but by no means can be 
persuaded to carry out the course systematically at home. In 
addition of course, and for the same reason, he will consent 
to a regulation of his diet, and furthermore he will take a 
simultaneous course of baths. 

Such waters, when used as baths, owe their therapeutic 
value very largely to the hot water as such, and therefore 
largely to the skill with which they are used ; they are in 
fact useful for all cases that otherwise would be sent to a 
hydro. 

This by no means implies that such baths are of little 
value. The vast majority of mineral- water baths are 
efficacious almost entirely in virtue of their hot water ; 
it is only in the minority of waters that the " mineral" 
factors enter ; but, as we have elsewhere shown, the effects of 
hot water, and especially of " fresh " hot water in unlimited 
supply, are very considerable. 

As a rule such springs yield an abundant supply, and it is 
a notable fact that in European spas supplied by simple 
thermal waters the development of systems of douching, 
and indeed of hydro-therapeutics generall}^ has reached 
a high pitch of perfection. 

There are, however, other factors, especially when the 
water is used by the mouth. 

Weakly mineralized waters are generally more fully 



166 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

ionized than the stronger waters ; and as there is every reason 
to suppose that the therapeutic value of a solution is largely 
determined by the number of free ions that it contains 
(cf. p. 231), it by no means follows that a water which we 
should class by its chemical analysis as " simple " is as 
" indifferent " as it may seem. 

Then there is the factor of radio-activity. As a rule 
the weaker waters are the more highly radio-active, and how 
far and to what extent that is a factor in the highly important 
quality of " freshness " is yet undetermined. 

It will be seen, then, that the utility of a spa possessing 
only a " simple thermal water" depends very largely on 
the skill in hydro-therapeutics of the physician and the 
equipment of the baths. 

In New Zealand at the present moment the spas df this 
class are as yet potential only ; they boast neither equipment 
nor local physicians. 

At Okoroire there are simple but very pleasant baths, 
and there is good accommodation ; as also at Waingaro ; 
at the other places mentioned in this list there are either no 
baths at all or they are of the most Arcadian simplicity. 

EUROPE 
Gastein 

Grains per gallon. 
Total solids . . . . . . .21 

Temperature 121° F. 

NEW ZEALAND 
Okoroire 

Sodium chloride . . . . . .17-18 

Silicates ........ 970 

Total solids 42-34 

Temperature 113° F. 

Waingaro (1904) 
Sodium chloride ....... 6-43 

Silica 7-80 

Total solids 22-66 

Temperature 130° F. 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 167 

Matamata (1904, 191 1) 

Grains per gallon. 

Sodium bicarbonate . . . . . . 28-10 

Total solids ....... 46-66 

Temperature 106° F. 

Haupiri (1901) 

Sodium silicate . . . . . . • 7'3 

Total .solids ....... 19-3 

Whangape-Waikato (1909) 

Sodium chloride . . . . . . ly^s 

Total solids ....... 35-50 

Temperature 150° to 200° F. 

Te Teko (1909) 

Sodium bicarbonate ...... 14-2 

Total solids ....... 26-2 

Temperature 150° F. 

Roadman's Bath, Wai-o-tapu (1909) 

Sodium chloride ....... 40-9 

Total solids ....... 69-7 

Temperature fat source) 212° F. 

Taheke-Rotoiti (1908) 

Silica ........ 15-0 

Total solids ....... 27-5 

Temperature 212° F. 

Maruia (1903) 

Total solids ....... 36-5 

Temperature 140° F. 

Mt. Egmont (1883) 

Calcium carbonate ...... 6-72 

Total solids ....... 26-23 

Franz Josef (1901) 

Total solids (principally sodium chloride and car- 
bonate) ....... 56-21 

Lake Sumner (Skey) 
Total solids ....... 18-56 

Temperature 93° F. 



168 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Miranda, Thames (J. A. Pond) 

Grains per gallou. 
Sodium chloride ....... 15-17 

Total solids ....... 31*27 

Temperature 134° F. 

Wanganui River, Westland (1907) 



bodium suipnate ..... 

Sodium silicate ...... 

Total solids ...... 


12-4 

16-9 

• 45-1 


Rahu, Reefton (1915) 




Sodium chloride ...... 

Sodium bicarbonate ..... 

Total solids ...... 

Hydrogen sulphide ..... 


• 15-97 

. 12-72 

• 37-17 

1-55 


MoRiNsviLLE (1915) 




Ferrous bicarbonate ..... 

Total solids ...... 

Carbonic acid (free) ..... 

Temperature cold. 


0-08 

1300 

• 94-52 


Katikati (1913) 




Sodium silicate ...... 

Total solids ...... 


• 5-63 

• 15-48 


PuKETiTiRi : Napier (1912) 




Sodium carbonate ..... 
Total solids ...... 


9-41 
■ 2346 



CLASS IL MURL\TED WATERS 

The principal ingredient of these waters is common salt. 

Taken as a whole, they constitute an important and 
numerous group, and are distinguished by their geographical 
distribution and by certain chemical peculiarities. Thus the 
great majority arise near the coast, especially the east coast 
of the North Island. A great number of the waters, too, 
contain very considerable quantities of calcium chloride and 
of sodium iodide, and a few magnesium chloride. Perhaps 
it would be more rational to class all these waters together 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 169 

as muriated, but for practical convenience, while the calcium 
chloride waters have been included as a subclass, the iodide 
and magnesium waters have been classed separately. There 
is a good deal of inevitable overlapping, and some waters 
are made to appear in more than one class, but this is only 
another way of stating that nature is infinite in variety 
and refuses to be bound down by the narrow limits of any 
scheme of classification. 

In Europe many muriated waters, especially the stronger 
waters, are cold, but in New Zealand cold brines are rare ; 
at any rate, I have not personally come across them. Again, 
no use is made in New Zealand of the concentrated " mutter- 
lauges" so much employed on the Continent. 

Baths of a simple nature, principally immersion baths, 
have been erected at several of the undermentioned springs, 
notably at Helens ville, which is rapidly assuming the dignity 
of a spa, Morere, Te Puia, and Tarawera. 

Action. — Muriated waters are used internally and for 
baths. In the latter capacity their effect largely depends 
upon their concentration, and is that of a skin stimulant, 
plus, of course, the effects of an ordinary bath at the same 
temperature (see page 249). 

Taken internally, sodium chloride waters of moderate 
strength stimulate the gastric mucous membrane and in- 
crease the activity of the secretion : at the same time they 
facilitate the solution of albuminous and starchy foods. 
They are diuretic, and an increased amount of salt is passed 
in the urine, and in some persons they are laxative. As 
they promote nutrition, they are useful in some cachexias, 
and in anaemias in which iron is badly tolerated. Their 
action on uric acid excretion is but slight, but they are used 
in asthenic gout. On account of their stimulant action on 
the gastric glands they are indicated in hypo-acidity, but 
contra-indicated in hyper-acidity : they are also largely 
used in chronic catarrh of the pharynx, naso-pharynx, 
stomach, duodenum, and biliary passages. 



170 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

MuRiATED Waters 
(a) Soclic Muriated Waters 

EUROPE 

Wiesbaden 

Grains per gallon. 

Sodium chloride ...... 350 to 490 

Temperature 100° to 156° F. 

NEW ZEALAND 
Helensville (1903) 



Sodium chUjride ..... 


114-46 


Sodium iodide ...... 


0-03 


Total solids ...... 


• 13468 


Gases, H^S and CH4 




Temperature 115° to 146° F. 




HoKiANGA (Pond) 




Sodium chloride ..... 


• 2,797-4 


Total solids ...... 


■ 2,937-5 


HOKIANGA : ROTOKAKAHI (1905) 




Sodium chloride ..... 


• 1,350-0 


Total solids ...... 


• 1.5430 


Raukawa, Hawke's Bay (19 12- 13) 




Sodium chloride ..... 


• 343-8 


Total solids ...... 


• 405-7 


Papaiti, Wanganui (1886) 




Sodium chloride ..... 


• 313-41 


Total solids ...... 


• 348-54 



PiPIRIKI (1888) 

spring on left bank of Wanganui 

Sodium chloride ...... 121-88 

Total solids 130-61 

Spring on right bank 

Sodium chloride ...... 231-64 

Total solids 24403 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 171 

MOKAU, MOTUKARAMA (1888) 

Grains per gallon. 

Total solids (chlorides and some iodide) . . . 844-0 

(Analysis incomplete) 

Katikati (1904) 
Sodium chloride ...... 119-54 

Total solids 137-26 

McLean's, Napier (Skey) 
Total solids ....... 444-7 

Mahurangi, Auckland (Skey) 
Total solids ....... 1410 

Mercury Bay (1908) 
Sodium chloride ...... 200-8 

Total solids ....... 259-4 

ROTOKAKAHI, HOKIANGA (19O4) 

Sodium chloride ...... 1,350 

Total solids 1.543 

{b) Calcic Sodic Muriated Waters 

Waters of this class are very strongly represented in 
New Zealand, and the springs, for the most part arising 
on the east coast, are distributed over a wide area extending 
from Poverty Bay to as far south as Banks' Peninsula in 
the South Island. 

Strong solutions of calcium chloride are not very well 
suited for internal administration, and it is probable that 
these waters will eventually find their principal role as 
baths. The weaker waters, however, such as those of Great 
Barrier Island, could well be used for drinking, in exactly 
the same manner as at Kreuznach, whose waters so closely 
resemble them. The action of the milder calcium chloride 
waters is largely that of the simple muriated waters, 
i.e. diuretic and gastric stimulant, but in the waters richer 
in calcium the stimulation of the gastric glands would 
probably be replaced by inhibition : there is at present 



172 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

unfortunately insufficient clinical or experimental evidence 
at our disposal of the action of these waters to allow of 
any dogmatic statement. By their hyper-tonicity ' some 
of them are distinctly purgative, but, owing to their very 
varied and complex composition, their action in this respect 
is equally varied. 

It will be noted that many of the waters of this class 
are shown also under the heading of Iodine Waters, or of 
Magnesium or of Chalybeate Waters ; indeed, it is hard to 
decide which is the predominating ingredient in many 
cases. 

While their internal use is perhaps limited, they are 
invaluable as baths, douches, sprays, and inhalations. 

As baths they have the skin-stimulating effects already 
noted under muriated waters, but being, in New Zealand, 
much stronger than the simple saline waters, they are 
much more stimulating, and approach in effect the con- 
centrated " mutkrlanges " of the Continent or the brine of 
Droitwich. 

At present no facilities for sprays and inhalations exist, 
but baths of simple immersion type exist at Morere and 
Te Puia (vide p. 128). In the near future, when better 
facilities for treatment are forthcoming, these places should 
be beneficial for arthritic cases, for gastric hyper-acidity, 
for catarrhal conditions of the naso-pharynx, larynx, and 
bronchi, for many chronic pelvic conditions in the female, 
for certain very chronic skin diseases, and, when taken inter- 
nally, for some cases of chronic urticaria and alHed blood 
conditions. 

The nearest European prototypes of such a class of water 
are perhaps Kreuznach on the Continent and Woodhall 
Spa in England. 



Calcium chloride 
Sodium chloride 



Kreuznach 

Grains per gallon. 
140-0 
700-0 
^ Vide Appendix, p. 276. 



Grains per gallon. 

• 585-51 

• 424-55 
. 1,040-76 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 173 



NEW ZEALAND 

Kawhia (1903) 
(Vide also " Iodine Waters ") 

Calcium chloride ..... 

Sodium chloride ..... 

Total solids ...... 

Mataroa (1903, 1905) 

(Vide also " Iodine Waters") 

Calcium chloride ..... 

Sodium chloride ..... 

Magnesium chloride ..... 
Total solids ...... 

Okain's Bay (1904) 
(Vide also " Chalybeate Waters " 



128-21 

1,625-25 

85-70 

1.843-43 



Calcium chloride 


. 468-5 


Sodium chloride 


• 295-5 


Magnesium chloride . 


. 264-8 


Ferrous bicarbonate . 


26-7 


Total solids .... 


. 1,128-9 



This is an artificial spring of cold water obtained from a 
bore sunk into the recent soil of a rapidly silting-up bay, 
and is remarkable for the unusually large amount of iron 
in solution. 



Ngakawau, Buller (1917) 



Calcium chloride 
Calcium bicarbonate 
Sodium chloride 
Sodium sulphate 
Total solids 



Grains per gallon. 
41-79 

14-35 

81-06 

10-29 

154-21 



Te Kuiti (1913) 
(Vide also "Iodine Waters") 



Calcium chloride 
Sodium chloride 
Lithium chloride ^ 
Total solids 



634-76 
805-63 

3-36 
1.454-46 



Cf. Lithium in Te Aroha waters, p. 120, and in Hanmer waters, p. 96. 



174 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

ToTORO, MoKAU River (1905) 

(Vide also " Iodine Waters ") 

Grains per gallon. 
Calcium chloride . . . . . . 68i-o 

Sodium chloride ...... 7480 

Total solids ....... 1,496-0 

MoRERE (1903-1905) 
(Vide also " Iodine Waters ") 

Calcium chloride ...... 544-78 

Sodium chloride ...... i, 249-67 

Total solids ....... 1,899-60 

Temperature 120° F. 

Te Puia (1906) 

(Vide also " Iodine Waters ") 

Calcium chloride ...... 153-40 

Sodium chloride ...... 807-75 

Total solids ....... 978-69 

Temperature 150° F. 

KOPUOWHARA, MaHIA (1885) 

(Vide also " Iodine Waters ") 

Calcium chloride ..... 

Sodium chloride ..... 

Total solids ...... 

Great Barrier Island (1904) 

Calcium chloride ..... 

Sodium chloride ..... 

Total solids ...... 

Temperature 180° F. 

Pahaua, Wellington (Skey : also 1878) 
(Vide also " Iodine Waters ") 

Calcium chloride ...... 128-88 

Sodium chloride ...... 1,303-32 

Total solids ....... 1,474-09 

KoTUKU, Greymouth (borehole 1904) 

Calcium chloride, sulphate, and bicarbonate. . 458-8 

Sodium chloride ...... 5,134-0 

Total solids ....... 5,936-8 



177' 


•82 


1,027 


-66 


1,241 


•65 


10375 


791 


•50 


985 


23 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 175 

Wallingford (Skey) 

(Vide also " Iodine Waters ") 

Grains per gallon. 

Total solids 826-0 

Mercury Bay (1908) 

Calcium chloride . . . . • .21-6 

Calcium bicarbonate ....•• 22-5 

Sodium chloride 200-8 

Total solids 259-4 

Taumaranui (1919) 

Calcium chloride ...... 532"0 

Sodium chloride ...... 945'° 

Total solids 1,505-0 

CLASS III. IODINE WATERS 

Strictly speaking, the iodine waters might all be classed 
under one of the other headings, and as a rule under that 
of calcic muriated waters. The possible importance of 
iodine as a constituent of mineral water is, however, so great, 
and the examples of such waters in New Zealand so numerous 
and important, that I have ventured to separate off the 
iodide waters in a class to themselves. 

Small quantities of iodides and bromides are not uncommon 
in the saline waters of Europe, and in England are found 
in the Woodhall waters ; but, for the most part, the quan- 
tities present are in no way comparable with those in the 
hot saline waters of New Zealand, where, in addition to iodide 
of sodium, there is a varying amount of free iodine present, 
in some cases sufficient to colour the water brown and to 
make itself very evident to the senses by its pungent fumes. 
It would appear that, on free exposure of the water to 
the atmosphere, the sodium iodide is decomposed, with 
the liberation of free nascent iodine. Such exposure is 
favoured at such places as Morere, where the hot water 
falling from the springs in cascades is broken into a fine 
spray and so exposed intimately to oxidation. The only 
waters stronger in iodide than these are, so far as I am aware. 



176 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

the Saratoga Springs, New York, and certain springs in 
Michigan, U.S.A. 

Action. — Iodine waters stimulate lymphatic activity and 
increase absorption, particularly in glandular organs.' 
They are used internally in cases of enlarged glands and of 
" scrofulous " conditions generally ; in cases of syphilis, 
though here we are on uncertain ground ; in goitre, though 
here again it is obvious that the cases must be selected ; 
and in certain diseases of the skin. 

Their use as baths has been already indicated, under the 
head of calcic muriated waters. 



Potassium iodide 
Potassium bromide 
Sodium chloride 
Magnesium chloride 
Calcium chloride 
Total solids 



EUROPE 
WooDHALL Spa 



Grains per gallon. 
052 

3-51 
1,406-10 

3839 

ro5-59 

1.562-47 



NEW ZEALAND 

MORERE (1903, 1906) 

(Vide " Calcic Muriated Waters ") 

Sodium iodide ....... 2-70 

Total solids 1,858-07 

(Also sufficient free iodine to tinge the water light brown) 



Te Puia (1907) 
(Vide also " Calcic Muriated Waters ") 



Sodium iodide . 
Total solids 



1-41 
978-69 



Kawhia (1903) 
(Vide also " Calcic Muriated Waters ") 



Sodium iodide 
Bromides . 
Total solids 



0-47 
trace 
1,040-76 



1 Kisch. 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 177 



Mataroa (1906) 
(Vide also " Calcic Muriated Waters ") 



Sodium iodide 
Total solids 



Grains per gallon. 

1-41 
. 1,879-60 



Pahaua (1878: also Skey) 

Magnesium iodide .... 
Magnesium bromide .... 
Iodine (free) ..... 
Total solids ..... 



0-58 

traces 

1-59 
1,424-09 



KOPUOWHARA, MaHIA (1885) 



Magnesium iodide 
Total solids 



2 98 
1,241-65 



Te Kuiti (1913) 



Lithium chloride 
Sodium iodide . 
Sodium chloride 
Calcium chloride 
Sodium borate . 
Total solids 



336 

0-21 

805-63 

634-76 

8-05 

1.454-46 



Webb's Spring, Mangaruhu (1914) 

Iodides ..... (not estimated) 

Total solids, mainly sodium chloride . . . 1,603-0 



Ihuraua, Masterton (1910-11) 




Sodium iodide ...... 


1-68 


Sodium chloride ..... 


• 691-51 


Total solids 


. 762-51 


Weber Springs' (1913) 




Iodine ....... 


4-5 


Total solids, mainly chlorides 


650-0 



Maranga, Napier (1910-11) 
(Incomplete analysis) 



Sodium iodide (in different springs) 
Chlorides ..... 



Very small yield. 



12 



1-96 to 2-8 

1,036-7 



178 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

CLASS IV. ALKALINE WATERS 

(a) Simple Alkaline Waters 

The principal ingredients of these waters is sodium 
bicarbonate, and any sodium chloride present — and some 
always is — is only in trifling amount. There is also generally 
present a fair amount of carbonic acid gas. 

Sucli waters are not common in New Zealand, being 
almost confined to the Thames Valley, at Puriri and Te 
Aroha. Of these two examples, Puriri may fairly be said 
to merit the title of "simple alkaline," while the Te Aroha 
waters might with equal truth be classed as " muriated 
alkaline," and constitute an intermediate link between 
the two classes. 

Taken internally they act as antacids, and in large 
doses inhibit the gastric and pancreatic secretion, being thus 
indicated in gastric hyper-acidity. In small doses they are 
said to stimulate the gastric mucous membrane, more 
especially if there is reasonable motor activity of the 
stomach, and they are largely used in hypo- acidity. 

They have also a diuretic action, and as they have a 
solvent action on mucus, they are useful in bronchial 
catarrh to facilitate expectoration. 

In gout they are very freely used, and in gouty glycosuria, 
but as they have a " lowering " effect they are more suited 
for robust than for debihtated subjects. 

The carbonic acid which they contain tends to increase 
both the secretory and motor activity of the stomach. 
They are often associated, as at Te Aroha, with mild 
chalybeate waters, and their use aids the action of iron in 
anrcmia. 

There is always some sodium chloride present in these 
waters, so that as a subclass they pass insensibly into the 
muriated alkaline waters, and the nearer they approach 
to that category the less " lowering " they are. 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 179 

EUROPE 

Vichy 

Grains per gallon. 

Sodium bicarbonate ..... 336 to 350 

Free carbonic acid .... 120 cub. in. per gallon 

Temperature 89° to 108-5 ° F. 



NEW ZEALAND 




PURIRI 






Grains per gallon 


Sodium bicarbonate ..... 


• 452-39 


Total solids 


. 537-11 


Free carbonic acid " abundant." 




Temperature 60° F. 




Te Aroha (1903-4-5) 




Sodium bicarbonate ..... 


• 657-4 


Sodium chloride . . . 


59-5 


Total solids 


• 784-3 


Temperature 135° F. 




Tapapa, Matamata (191 i) 




Sodium bicarbonate ..... 


31-29 


Sodium silicate ...... 


7-0 


Total solids ...... 


48-16 


Otway's Spring, Waitoa (1913) 




Sodium bicarbonate ..... 


42-63 


Sodium silicate ...... 


14-42 


Ferrous bicarbonate ..... 


0-35 


Total solids ...... 


73-57 


Carbonic acid (free) ..... 


19-88 


MoTu' (191 7) 




Sodium bicarbonate ..... 


32-41 


Total solids . . . . . . 


39-13 



(b) Muriated Alkaline Waters 

In these waters considerable quantities of sodium chloride 
are present with the bicarbonate, and, while they are useful, 
roughly, in the same class of cases as the last, the sodium 
chloride exerts its stimulating effect on the digestive organs, 
and they are generally regarded as less " lowering " than 
the more purely alkaline waters. 



180 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 



EUROPE 




ROYAT 






Grains per gallon 


Sodium chloride ..... 


II90 


Sodium bicarbonate ..... 


gi-o 


Calcium bicarbonate ..... 


• 1330 


Ferrous bicarbonate ..... 


2-8 


Lithium chloride ..... 


2-4 


Total solids 


392-0 


NEW ZEAL.\ND 




Waiwera (Skey : also 1904) * 




Sodium chloride ..... 


116-7 


Sodium bicarbonate ..... 


875 


Total solids ...... 


219-5 



Temperature 105" F. 

Ohaewai (1904) 
(Cf. "Mercurial Mud ") 

Sodium chloride .... 

Sodium bicarbonate .... 

Total solids ..... 
Temperature 180° F. 



6510 

134-50 
255-66 



This water is strongly siilpluirettcd, and miglit with 
equal justice be placed among the sulphur waters, some 
of the springs here containing as much as 108 grains per 
gallon of sulphuric acid. For further analyses of the 
Ohaewai Springs vide p. 210. 



CLASS V. MAGNESIUM WATERS 

These waters are generally classed with the sulphated 
or with the earthy or calcareous waters, and indeed their 
magnesium content is generally overshadowed by other 
ingredients. It is, however, a matter of piactical convenience 
to place them together in one class, as this facilitates reference 
and is of some practical importance, as the term " magnesia 
spring " is so widespread and popular in application. 

The usual salts met with are the carbonate, the chloride, 

1 The 1904 analysis appears to have been made from a minor spring, 
and shows an indifferent or simple thermal water containing sodium 
chloride and bicarbonate, but total solids only 16 grains per gallon. 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 181 

and the sulphate, and we can therefore arrange the magnesium 
waters in three groups. 

(a) Magnesium Carbonate Waters 

These waters, in which the magnesium salt is generally 
in company with calcium bicarbonate, are diuretic and 
antacid, and, in the absence of much calcium salt, laxative. 

In the calcareous-water spas, such as Contrexeville and 
Wildungen, the waters are taken for their calcium rather 
than their magnesium content, and indeed, it is hard to 
find a water exactly analogous to the alkaline magnesia 
waters of New Zealand such as Te Aroha. These latter are 
indicated in dyspepsia and in gout associated with dyspeptic 
troubles. 



NEW ZEALAND 




Paeroa (1904) 




• 


Grains per gallon 


Calcium bicarbonate .... 


35-5 


Magnesium bicarbonate 


730 


Sodium bicarbonate .... 


39-4 


Total solids ..... 


167-8 


Free CO2 


26-0 


Te Aroha 





Springs Nos. 20, 21, and 22, vide p. n8 for analyses. 
See also " Te Aroha Cold Springs," p. 120. 



Wairongoa 
(Vide also " Calcareous Waters ") 



Calcium bicarbonate . 
Magnesium bicarbonate 
Total solids 



Grains per gallon 
67-86 
35-89 
- 165-75 



Kamo 

(Vide also " Calcareous Waters ") 

Calcium bicarbonate ...... 57-68 

Magnesium bicarbonate ..... 17-05 

Sodium bicarbonate ...... 38-64 

Total solids ....... 164-36 



182 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 



Matamata (1912) 

Calcium bicarbonate . 
Sodium bicarbonate . 
Magnesium bicarbonate and chloride 
Total solids .... 

Matamata (191 3) 
Calcium bicarbonate . 
Sodium bicarbonate . 
Magnesium bicarbonate 
Total solids .... 

Raukawa (1913) 
Calcium bicarbonate . 
Magnesium l)icarbonatc 
Sodium bicarbonate . 
Sodium chloride 
Total solids 

Ormond Valley, vide p. 185. 

Ihuraua, Masterton, vide " Iodine Waters. 

Parakao, vide p. 186. 



Grains per gallon. 

609 

31-29 

3-43 
48-16 



18-82 

14-77 
10-99 
5803 



17-6 

243 
i6-o 

343-8 

405-7 



(6) Magnesium Chloride Waters 

In these waters the magnesium chloride is generally 
associated with the sulphate and with large quantities 
of common salt. It is a class including some of the more 
potent purgative waters in Europe, such as Friedrichshall 
and Franz Josef. In New Zealand these waters are practi- 
cally confined to the neighbourhood of Banks' Peninsula 
and Lyttelton Harbour, and the waters all contain a fair 
amount of calcium chloride, which somewhat detracts 
from their usefulness. They are all laxative and diuretic. 
In the strongest of these waters, Okain's Bay, the amount 
of calcium and other salts is so large as to make the water 
unsuitable for a purgative, though its purgative action is 
nevertheless strong. 

EUROPE 
Friedrichshall 



Sodium chloride 
Sodium sulphate 
Magnesium chloride 



Grains per gallon. 
1.680 
1 , 260 
840 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 183 



NEW ZEALAND 
Okain's Bay (1904) 



Sodium chloride 
Potassium chloride 
Calcium chloride 
Magnesium chloride 
Magnesium sulphate 
Ferrous bicarbonate 
Silica 
Total solids 



Grains per gallon. 

295-5 

2-4 

468-5 

264-8 

69-0 

26-7 

2-0 

I,I28-Q 



(Results expressed in grains per gallon) 





Charteris Bay, 


Church Bay, 


Heathcote 


Heathcote 


, 


Lvtteltoa 


Lyttelton 


Valley 


Valley 




(1909). 


(1909). 


(1909). 


(1914). 


Potassium chloride. 


6-5 


3-35 


3-65 


54-67 


Sodium chloride 


40-4 


33-20 


51-40 


— 


Magnesium chloride 


35-3 


38-80 


8-50 


3-99 


Magnesium sulphate 


12-4. 


4-95 


10-35 


9-24 


Sodium bicarbonate 


2-9 


7-90 


4-80 




Calcium bicarbonate 


62-0 


20-20 


27-50 


— 


Ferrous bicarbonate 


I-O 


2-40 


1-50 


— 


Sodium silicate 


4-1 


5-40 


5-00 


— 


Carbonic acid (free) 






' 


14-77 


Total solids 


164-6 


Il6-20 


112-70 


82-67 



Amberley (1913) 



Magnesium chloride 

Magnesium sulphate 
Total solids . ^ 



Grains per gallon. 
Mo. I. No. 2. 

5-67 — 

0-35 3-36 

45-31 75-58 



(c) Magnesium Sulphate Waters 

With the exception of the above, and especially of the 
somewhat anomalous Okain's Bay water, there have so 
far been found few sulphated waters in New Zealand, 



Waikohu (1909-10) 



Sodium sulphate 
Aluminium sulphate 
Iron sulphate 
Calcium sulphate 
Magnesium sulphate 
Total solids 
Free COj . 



Grains per gallon. 
53-0 
93-0 
1-5 
34-0 
13-5 
210-5 

3-5 



184 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

CLASS VL THE CALCAREOUS OR EARTHY WATERS 

These waters contain calcium sulphate or carbonate or 
both. 

New Zealand is somewhat poor in springs of this class, 
calcium, when present in any quantity, being generally in 
the form of the chloride, and waters of this type generally 
fall under the heading of muriated waters or of magnesium 
waters. 

Action. ^ — Internally they act as astringents and antacids, 
and are used in digestive disturbances ; they are also diuretic, 
and it is in this direction that their principal sphere of 
usefulness lies in the treatment of uric acid gravel, gouty 
oxaluria, and cystitis. 

Incidentally they contain as a rule free carbonic acid, 
and in some of the waters, for instance Kamo, the gas is 
so abundant that its importance from a therapeutic point of 
view completely overshadows that of the saline constituents, 
more especially when the water is used for baths. 

Thus the baths at Kamo can be used in the same way 
as those at Nauheim, either in heart cases or as a tonic 
measure in other conditions, and though at present they 
are little developed, there can be no doubt whatever that 
in the near future their importance will be fully recognized. 
The carbonic acid has also a considerable commercial 
significance. 

Many of these waters, too, contain appreciable quantities 
of iron in an easily assimilable form, so that they may also 
be found classed under the chalybeates, and are indicated 
in chlorosis and in other cases of anaemic debility. 

EUROPE 

CONTREXEVILLE 

Grains per gallon. 
Calcium bicarbonate ...... 28-0 

Calcium sulphate ...... 105 -o 

Magnesium bicarbonate . . . . . 2-1 

Temperature cold 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 185 

NEW ZEALAND 

Waikoura, Kaeo (1909) 

Grains per gallon. 

Calcium bicarbonate ...... I27-5 

Sodium bicarbonate ...... 126-6 

Total solids ....... 304-1 

Wairongoa 

(Vide also " Table Waters " and "Magnesium Waters ") 

Calcium bicarbonate ...... 67-86 

Magnesium bicarbonate ..... 35-89 

Total solids ....... 165-75 

Kamo 

(Vide also " Table Waters," " Magnesium Waters," and 
"Chalybeate Waters ") 

Calcium bicarbonate ...... 57-68 

Sodium bicarbonate ...... 38-64 

Magnesium bicarbonate ..... 17-05 

Total solids ....... 164-36 

Temperature 78° F. 

Copland River, Westland (1907) 

Calcium bicarbonate . . . . . . 2 70 

Sodium bicarbonate ...... 76-6 

Total solids ....... 142-3 

Fox River, Westland (1907) 

Calcium bicarbonate . . . . . . 10-5 

Sodium, bicarbonate ...... 44-4 

Total solids ....... 79-5 

Te Aroha (Cold Springs) (1913) 

Calcium bicarbonate ...... 48x6 

Magnesium bicarbonate ..... 15-4 

Total solids ....... 78-89 

Ormond Valley (1912) 

Calcium bicarbonate . . . . . . 16-17 

Sodium bicarbonate ...... 8-54 

Magnesium bicarbonate ..... 6-86 

Total solids ....... 35-77 



186 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Ihuraua, Masterton (igio) 
(Vide also " Iodine Waters ") 

Grains per gallon. 
Calcium bicarbonate ...... 42-7 

Magnesium bicarbonate . . . . 12-25 

Magnesium chloride . . . . . . 7-14 

Total solids ....... 762-51 



735-0 



Parakao, Whangarei (191 i) 

Calcium and magnesium bicarbonate\„ . .. , 
Sodium chloride and carbonate / 

CLASS VI L CHALYBEATE WATERS 

Therapeutically, the most important of these waters are 
those containing the bicarbonate of iron and free carbonic 
acid gas. 

Many of the chalybeate springs of New Zealand contain 
large, and sometimes enormous, quantities of the sulphate, 
and, while these are noted here, they are, except as baths, 
of little practical use in so far as the iron salt is concerned. 

The ferrous bicarbonate, on the other hand, though 
generally present in but small amount, is easily assimilated, 
especially, as is usually the case, when associated with abun- 
dant carbonic acid gas ; while it is to the presence of this 
gas that baths of such waters owe their stimulating pro- 
perties. On the escape of this gas the iron salt is apt to 
be precipitated as the oxide, and such waters must be 
carbonated if bottled. 

Pharmacological Action. — Chalybeate waters are indi- 
cated in the anaemia consequent on previous illness or on 
haemorrhage, or in simple chlorosis. In the latter case 
more especially they should be combined with purgatives. 
Owing probably to their association with carbonic acid 
and with other salts they are generally diuretic, and increase 
the excretion of urea and proteid catabolism generally. 
During a course of these waters a diet of easily digested 
foods, rich in proteids and carbohydrates, but poor in 
fats, is generally recommended.^ 

1 Weber: Balneotherapy. 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 187 

The waters are contra-indicated in plethoric conditions 
and in cases in which the digestive apparatus is much 
deranged. 

EUROPE 
Spa 

Grains per gallon. 
Ferrous bicarbonate ....-• ^"44 

Carbonic acid " abundant " 

Temperature cold 

NEW ZEALAND 

Te Arch a (Cold Springs, 19 13) 

(Vide also Spring No. 20, p. 118) 
Ferrous bicarbonate ...••• 4'55 

Total solids 33-25 

Carbonic acid (free) 76-93 

Taupirii (1913) 

Ferrous bicarbonate . . . • • . 1 1 08 

Total solids ^^'H 

Carbonic acid (free) ^3-°^ 

Waitangi, Rotoehu (1903-1904) 
Ferrous bicarbonate . . . • • • °'5 

Total solids 38-73 

Carbonic acid, free efEervescence 

Temperature 120° F. 

Kamo 
(Vide also " Calcareous Waters ") 
Ferrous bicarbonate (estimated as oxide) . . 0-28 

Rahu, Reefton (19 1 5) 

Ferrous bicarbonate . . . • • ■ °-^4 

Sodium bicarbonate . . . • • • 12-62 

Sodium chloride 15-97 

Total solids 37-17 

Waikoura, Kaeo (1909) 
(Vide also " Calcareous Waters ") 
Ferrous bicarbonate . . . • • • 2-9 

Total solids 304-1 

Soda Spring, Ngawha (1909) 
Ferrous bicarbonate . . . • • • ^'~ 

Carbonic acid (free) ...••• 35-° 

Total solids 3i-8 

1 From a bore : this water is not used therapeutically. 



188 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 



KoTUKU, Greymouth (1904) 



Ferrous bicarbonate 
Total solids 



Grains per gallon. 
4-10 
201'25 



Grain's Bay (1904) 

(Vide also " Muriated Waters " and " Magnesium Waters ") 

26'7 
. 1,128-9 



Ferrous bicarbonate 
Total solids 



Patangata (1902) 



Ferrous bicarbonate 
Total solids 



Ferrous bicarbonate 
Total solids 



AoRANGi (Skey) 



Paeroa (1905) 

(Vide also " Magnesium Waters ") 

Ferrous bicarbonate ...... 

Total solids ....... 

Free carbonic acid ...... 

Temperature 80° F. 

Waiwera 

(Vide also " Muriated Alkaline Waters ") 

Ferrous bicarbonate ...... 

Total solids ....... 

Maungapakeha, Taupo (1907) 

(Vide also " Iodine Waters ") 

Ferrous bicarbonate ...... 

Total solids ....... 

Iron Spring, Terraces, Taupo (1906) 
Ferrous bicarbonate ...... 

Total solids ....... 

Carbonic acid ....... 

Temperature 120° F. 



0-6 
1764 



094 
13-75 



1-6 

167-8 

260 



I 



068 
219-55 



4 00 
374-00 



0-28 
6304 
16-90 



Soda Water Spring, Terraces, Taupo (1906) 
Ferrous bicarbonate ...... 0-84 

Total solids ....... 64- 19 

Carbonic acid . . . . . . 4770 

Temperature cold 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 189 

Arsenic Spring i, the Spa, Taupo (1906) 

Grains per gallon. 
Ferrous bicarbonate . . . . . . 0-56 

Total solids 55"52 

Devil's Eyeglass, Wairakei ^ (1906) 

Ferrous bicarbonate . . . . . . 1-20 

Total solids 117-25 

The Boilers, Wairakei 2 (1906) 

Ferrous bicarbonate . . . . . . I'i2 

Total solids 100-77 

Wai-o-tapu 
Chalybeate waters exist here, but so far no potable specimens have 
been analysed. 

Ihuraua, Masterton (1910-11) 

(Vide also •' Iodine Waters ") 

Grains per gallon. 

Ferrous bicarbonate . . • . . • i*i9 

Total solids 761-51 

Waikohu (1909-10) 

(Vide also " Sulphated Waters ") 

Iron sulphate . . . . . • • i"5 

Total solids 210-5 

Iodine Spring, ^ Rotomahana (1904) 

Ferrous bicarbonate . . . . . . 0-62 

Total solids 157-79 

Temperature 212° F. 

RoTORUA Waters 

The majority of these waters contain iron, but as this is not an important 
or essential feature two examples only are given as types of the rest. 

Rachel Spring, Rotorua (19 13) 

Grains per gallon . 
Ferrous bicarbonate . . . . . • o-oi 

Total solids 118-84 

1 This spring contains no arsenic. 

2 These waters are not potable. 

3 Contains no iodine. 



190 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Postmaster Spring, Rotorua (1907) 

Grains per gallon. 



Ferrous sulphate ..... 


052 


Total solids ...... 


8681 


Ohaewai, Spring No. i (1909) 




Ferrous sulphate ..... 


41 


Total solids ...... 


45-6 


MOTU. GiSBORNE (19O4) 




Ferrous sulphate ..... 


44-68 


Total solids 


• 379-31 



White Island 

(Skey : vide also " Acid Waters ") 

Ferrous sulphate ...... 1,05900 

Total solids 13,63800 

Temperature 212° F. 

Whale Island (Pond) 

Ferrous sulphate ...... 9-38 

Total solids 25030 

Temperature 198° F. 

Akitio, Wellington (Skey) 

Iron and alumina ...... 093 

Total solids ....... 37-65 

Abbotsford, Otago (1882) 

(Analysis incomplete) 

Ferrous bicarbonate 

Total solids ....... 304-00 

Bay of Islands (Skey) 
Iron oxide . . . . . . . 2-23 

Total solids ....... 134-62 

Waikohu (1910) 
Ferrous sulphate ...... 1-50 

Total solids ....... 210-50 

Neilson's Spring, Ngawha (1909) 

Ferrous bicarbonate . . . . . 1-2 

Total solids . . . . . . .31-8 

Carbonic acid (free) . . . . . . 35-0 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 191 



Copland River (1906) 

Grains per gallon. 

Ferrous bicarbonate ...... 2-0 

Total solids 142-3 

Fox River (1906) 

Ferrous bicarbonate . . . . . . i-o 

Total solids 79*5 

The following springs contain appreciable quaiitities of iron, but the 
quantitative analj'sis is incomplete : 

Onetapu, Amberley. 



CLASS VIIL SULPHUR (SILICEOUS) WATERS 

The sulphur waters constitute by far the largest and 
most important group of mineral waters in New Zealand. 
This is as might be expected in a highly volcanic country 
whose activity has not yet by any means entirely died down. 
They are characterized by their very high temperature 
and by their large siliceous content. The group, though 
so well defined physically by the characteristic odour of 
the sulphides, is by no means so well defined when it comes 
to classification of individual waters. For many waters 
that otherwise would indubitably be classed as saline or 
chalybeate, as witness the astounding White Island water 
(p. 198), are yet highly sulphurous, and could hardly be 
omitted from a list of sulphur waters. 

In England the sulphur waters are cold, and often highly 
mineralized, and are more important for internal than for 
external use ; on the Continent of Europe there are very 
numerous hot sulphur springs in some respects comparable 
to the New Zealand waters, but lacking their large amount 
of silica. The waters of some of the most famous spas 
are of this nature, and in such spas bathing, as in New 
Zealand, has been brought to a high pitch of refinement 
and efficiency, while the internal administration of the water 
is often comparatively a secondary matter. 

To obtain, however, waters at all strictly comparable 



192 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

we have to go to the United States or to Japan, where some 
of the waters are almost identical. 

To illustrate these points analyses are given of an 
English cold sulphur spring, of a Continental hot spring, 
and of an American siliceous one. 

As a full account of the pharmacological and physical 
action of sulphur waters is given in the chapter on Rotorua 
(p. 67 et seq.), it is unnecessary to discuss the matter further 
here. 

The sulphur waters may be divided into two main classes — 
the alkaline or neutral, and the acid.' The latter class is 
practically unrepresented in Europe except by such weakly 
acidified springs as those of Levico. 

Subclass {a), The Alkaline Sulphur Waters 

For the most part the specific gravity of these waters 
is not high, the largest ingredients being the chloride and 
silicate of sodium, and the alkalinity is moderate. For 
all practical purposes their most marked characteristic 
is the amount of silicate they contain, and it is this ingredient 
which gives to the alkaline waters of the Rotorua district 
their peculiarly bland and satiny feel and makes them 
so valuable for bath purposes. A similar condition causes 
the " unctuous " sensation of the " sources savonneuscs " at 
Plombieres. 

Some of the alkaline waters contain appreciable quantities 
of borates and are, for convenience, classified under the 
head of borated waters. 

As the highly siliceous waters shade off imperceptibly 
into the less siliceous, it has not seemed convenient to make 
them a separate class, and they are therefore all included 
here under the term " sulphur waters." For a fuller 
discussion on the action of the alkaline silicates the reader 
is referred to page 67. 

1 The term " acidulated waters " applied to waters containing carbonic 
acid gas must be clearly distinguished. The acids here referred to are 
sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid. 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 193 



ENGLAND 




Old Sulphur Well, Harrogate 






Grains per gallon. 


Sodium sulphide ..... 


5-21 


Sodium chloride ...... 


893-67 


Magnesium chloride ..... 


48-28 


Calcium chloride ..... 


43-63 


Barium chloride ..... 


6-56 


Total solids ....... 


1,047-56 


Sulphuretted hydrogen . . . 10-46 cub 


in. per gallon 


Carbonic acid ..... 40-10 cub 


in. per gallon 


Temperature cold 




FRANCE 




Bagneres-de-Luchon 






Grains per gallon 


Sodium sulphide ..... 


3-9 to 4-9 


Sodium chloride ..... 


14-0 


Temperature 61° F. to 152° F. 




NEW ZEALAND 




Rachel Spring, Rotorua (1913) 




Sodium sulphide ..... 


10-27 


Sodium chloride ..... 


. 65-87 


Sodium silicate ...... 


23-78 


Sodium bicarbonate ..... 


13-47 


Carbonic acid ...... 


9-17 


Total solids 


. 118-84 



Temperature 194° F. 

Under this heading come, with the exception of certain 
muddy geysers of the type of Waimangu, practically the 
whole of the springs of the Thermal District which exhibit 
or tend to exhibit geyser action. Thus would be included 
many springs at Tokaanu, the Taupo geysers, the springs 
of the geyser valley at Wairakei, numberless springs at 
Wai-o-tapu and Orakei-Korako, and the Whakarewarewa 
and Ohinemutu geysers. The analysis of a few of these 
is given as a type of the rest. 

Many of these waters contain very little salts, and a few 
so little sulphide that they might with equal justice be 
classed under the heading of " Simple Thermal Waters," 
but for convenience they are placed all together here, as 
they are all of the siliceous sulphur type. 

13 



194 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 



Oil Bath, Rotorua (Skey) i 

Grains per gallon. 
Silica and silicates ...... 29-00 

Sodium chloride ...... 66-34 

Total solids ....... 104-54 

Temperature at source 212° F. 

(This water owes its soft, almost oily, feel to the large amount of silicates 
in solution.) 

Spout Bath, Rotorua (Skey) 

Grains per gallon. 
Sodium silicate ....... 16-32 

Sodium chloride. ...... 53-6i 

Total solids 87-78 

Temperature at source 212° F. 



KuiRAU, Rotorua (Skey) 

Silicates ........ 22-00 

Sodium chloride ...... 45-70 

Total solids . . . . . . -79-85 

Temperature varies in different springs, 140° F. 

(This is a hot lake fed by numerous springs.) 

Te Koutu, Rotorua (Skey) 

Sodium silicate . . . . . . . 32-12 

Total solids . . . . . . .72-78 

(This spring has recently dried up, its course being diverted.) 

Waihunuhunukuri (Lake House Hotel), Rotorua (Hector) 
Total solids ....... 58-40 

Waikite, Ohinemutu, Rotorua (1904) 

Sodium chloride ...... 38-75 

Sodium bicarbonate ...... 20-03 

Silicates ........ 24-36 

Total solids ....... 90-28 

1 These springs are all boiling : many of them are actual geysers. 
Their true temperature, owing to the elevation of the thermal plateau, 
is less than 212° F., but the corrected boiling-point is used for convenience. 

In the case of the geysers this temperature increases directly as the 
distance below the surface at which it is taken. 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 195 

Matuatonga, Rotorua (Hector) 

Grains per gallon. 
Sodium chloride ...... 66-44 

Sodium silicate ....... 29-27 

Total solids ....... 113-27 

Hanmer (1913) 
(Vide also " Borated Waters ") 

Sodium chloride . . . . . -52-75 

Sodium borate ....... i7"57 

Sodium sulphide ...... 1-45 

Total solids . . . . . . . 8i-68 

Temperature 120 F. 

Crow's Nest Geyser, Taupo (Hector) 

Total solids ....... 153-6 

Temperature 212° F. 

Witch's Cauldron, Taupo (Hector) 

Total solids ....... 166-4 

Temperature 212° F. 

Waiariki, Taupo (Hector) 
Total solids ....... 86-4 

Top Spring, Terraces, Taupo (1906) 

Sodium chloride ...... 43-66 

Total solids ....... 105-80 

Temperature 184° F. 

South Bay Spring, Terraces, Taupo (1906) 

Sodium chloride ...... 56-10 

Total solids ....... 107-72 

Temperature 180° F. 

A. C. Bath, Taupo (1906) 

Total solids • . 46-43 

Temperature 102° F. 



Old Sulphur Spring, Taupo (1906) 

Total solids ...... 

Temperature 135° F. 



6379 



196 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Champagne Pool, Wairakei (1906) 

Grains per gallon. 

Sodium chloride ...... 195-20 

Total solids ....... 242-68 

Temperature 212° F. 

Red Coral Geyser, Wairakei (1906) 

Sodium chloride . . . . . • 39"35 

Total solids ....... 100-77 

Champagne Pool, Wai-o-tapu (1909) 

Sodium chloride ...... 220-4 

Total solids ....... 288-2 

Carbonic acid (free) . . . . . .13-2 

Temperature 212° F. 

ROTOITIPAKU, OnEPU (1904) 

Sodium chloride ...... 50-75 

Sodium sulphate ...... 10-08 

Sodium silicate ....... 22-20 

Total solids ....... 100-68 

Umupokapoka, Onepu (1904) 

Sodium chloride ...... 66-76 

Sodium sulphate ...... 5'40 

Sodium silicate ....... 22-68 

Total solids ....... 108-70 

Temperature 180° F. 

Manupirua, Rotoiti (1904) 

Sodium chloride ...... I3'52 

Sodium silicate ....... I4*49 

Total solids ....... 44*91 

Carbonic acid (free) ...... 13-72 

Temperature 105° F. 

Iodine Spring,^ Tarawera, Rotomahana 

Sodium chloride ...... 93-60 

Sodium silicate ....... 32-69 

Total solids ....... 157-79 

Temperature 212° F. 

* Taupo, Terraces (1907) 

Sodium chloride ...... 49-96 

Sodium bicarbonate ...... 14-80 

Sodium silicate ....... 25-90 

Total solids . . . .117-17 

* Contains no iodine. 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 197 

Subclass (b), Acid Sulphur Waters 

With the exception that they are much more siliceous, 
the alkaline sulphur waters bear a fairly close resemblance 
to numerous sulphur waters in Europe, but for a type 
of the acid sulphur waters we have to look to America, there 
being no waters of this nature used at the European spas. 
The nearest European approach to the acid springs of 
New Zealand is to be found in the waters of Levico (Austria), 
which contain a small amount of free sulphuric acid, and 
in the peat baths of Austria, which contain free sulphuric 
and formic acids and sulphate of iron. 

Strong sulphuric acid waters are found in the United 
States, where, contrary to the New Zealand experience, some 
of the geysers are acid. Such waters are found in the 
Yellowstone, in the California geysers, in some of the 
Virginian springs, and in the Oak Orchard Spring, New 
York, and, above all, in Iowa, where there is a spring with 
409 grains of free sulphuric acid to the U.S. gallon. 

These waters are used as baths only, and it is on these 
baths more than on any other thing that the great reputation 
of the New Zealand spas is built. 

Their physiological and therapeutical action is fully 
discussed under the head of Rotorua (p. 79). 



ROTORUA ACID WATERS 

(Analyses in grains per gallon) 





Postmaster 
Spring 
{1907). 


Old Priest 
Spring 
(1907). 


New Priest 
Spring 
(1907). 


Sulphur Point 

Efiervescing 

Spring 

(1907)- 


Sulphuric acid (free) A 
Carbonic acid (free) 


22-29 
28-84 


3-77 
40-00 


i6-8o 
4-31 


4-46 
2-52 


Hydrogen sulphide. 
Sodium sulphate 
Aluminium sulphate 


13-09 

14-25 
15-60 


5-00 

10-85 

9-60 


1-80 
19-94 
12-38 


0-19 

i8-io 

8-10 


Silica .... 
Total solids . 


15-10 
86-81 


12-10 
52-49 


22-82 
96-47 


20-20 

79-24 



198 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

There are innumerable springs in the central Rotorua 
group, along the foreshore of the lake, which conform to 
the type of the Priest and Postmaster springs. Many of 
these have not been analysed, and have not even been named, 
but the first two on the following list may serve as examples. 



Waikupapapa 

Hydrochloric acid (free) .... 
Sulphuric acid (free) ..... 
Total solids ...... 


Grains per gallon 

7-49 
4-29 

56-45 


Ngaruapuia 




Hydrochloric acid (free) .... 
Sulphuric acid (free) ..... 
Total solids ...... 


676 

3" 
59-50 


Taheke, Rotoiti (1908) 




Sulphuric acid (free) ..... 
Total solids ...... 


1520 
231-0 


HORAKIKIMUMURU, ROTOITI (1908) 




Sulphuric acid (free) ..... 
Total solids ...... 


68-6 
• I3Q-5 



The most remarkable acid springs of New Zealand, how- 
ever, are those arising in White Island. This is the crater 
of an active volcano, almost flush with the waters of the 
Bay of Plenty. The acidity is so strong that these waters 
are wholly unsuitable for baths, and are more fit for 
commercial industrial use. 

White Island (Skey) 

Grains per gallon. 
Hydrochloric acid (free) ..... 9,547-0 

Total solids ...... 13,6380 

Temperature 212° F. 

White Island Lake (1910) 

(Vide also " Arsenical Waters ") 

Aluminium sulphate ...... 1,476-3 

Hydrochloric acid (free) ..... 3,383-6 

Total solids ....... 6,469-6 

Temperature 110° F. 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 



199 



The composition of this water would appear to vary 
considerably. Probabh^ samples taken from various por- 
tions of the lake would vary according to their distance 
from the mam spring, and indeed there are probably large 
numbers of springs of various composition feeding the lake. 
Again, the anah^sis may probably vary from year to year 
in accordance with varying volcanic activity. The last 
analj'sis (1910) is given in full percentages, as it not only 
shows this variation, but is remarkable for showing the 
presence of pentathionic acid, formed by the interaction 
of HoS and SOg, a body not previously detected in mineral 
waters.^ 



Per ceat. 



Ammonium chloride 










. 0-02730 


Potassium chloride 










. 0-16540 


Sodium chloride 










. 0-03790 


Potassium bromide 










. 0-00510 


Potassium iodide 










trace 


Sodium sulphate 










. 0-61910 


Magnesium sulphate 










. 0-39480 


Calcium sulphate 










. 0-50900 


Aluminium sulphate 










. 2-10900 


Ferric sulphate . 










. 0-26000 


Ferrous sulphate 










. 0-19760 


Manganous sulphate 










. 0-00380 


Copper sulphate 










trace 


Molybdic acid . 










trace 


Silica 










. 0-00800 


Titanium dioxide 










. 0-00300 


Boron trioxide . 










. 0-03100 


Arsenious oxide 










. 0-00056 


Carbon dioxide . 










. 0-01300 


Hydrochloric acid 










- 4-83380 


Pentathionic acid 










. 0-02400 


Total 


. 9-24236 


Whale Island (Pond) 


Grains per gallon. 


Sulphuric acid i^8-:!2 


Total solids 










• 250-30 



Temperature 198° F. 
1 Report of Dr. Maclaurin, Dominion Analyst. 



200 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Abbotsford, Otago (1882) 

Grains per gallon. 

Sulphuric acid (free and combined with iron) . 191-87 

Total solids ....... 304-01 

Ohaewai (1909) 

Sulphuric acid ....... 1080 

Total solids ....... 1290 

TAUPO DISTRICT 

RoTOKAWA (Black Water) (Hector) 

Hydrochloric acid (free) ..... — 

Total solids ....... 142-4 

Temperature 192° F. 

RoTOKAWA (Yellow Water) (Hector) 

Hydrochloric acid (free) ..... — 

Total solids ....... 176-0 

Temperature 152° F. 

WAIKAKEI DISTRICT 

Practically all the springs of the Kiriohinckci Valley are more or less 
acid : two are given as types. 

Devil's Eyeglass (1906) 

(Vide also " Chalybeate Waters ") 

Grains per gallon. 
Sulphuric acid (free) ...... 2-80 

Carbonic acid (free) ...... 7-10 

Total solids ....... 117-25 

The Boilers (1906) 

(Vide also " Chalybeate Waters ") 

Sulphuric acid (free) ...... 4-50 

Carbonic acid (free) ...... 7-50 

Total solids ....... 100-77 

Sulphur Terrace, Wai-o-tapu (1909) 

Sulphuric acid (free) . . . . . . 2-5 

Total solids ....... 43-6 

Temperature 212° F. 

These three last springs are, with White Island and Whale Island, 
important exceptions to the rule (vide p. 24) that in New Zealand all 
the boiling springs are alkaline. 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 201 

Subclass (c), Muddy Waters 

There remains a subclass of the sulphur waters which 
consists of mineral water containing large quantities of 
highly siliceous mud and pure sulphur in suspension. 
Strictly speaking, they should all perhaps be included in 
one of the foregoing classes, but they are very characteristic 
of the New Zealand spas, and it is practically convenient 
to put them in a class by themselves. 

Their importance lies in the fact that they are utilized 
as mud baths. 

In former days it was the common practice to bathe in 
the actual springs, or in such parts of their pools as were 
cool enough to permit this, and in this way the maximum 
therapeutic efficiency was secured ; for there was the skin 
stimulus, not only of the emulsion of mud and sulphur 
and of the mineral water, but of the free gases. Such 
baths were verj^ valuable, but very dangerous, and serious 
accidents were common. Thus the Cameron Spring was 
also known as the " Laughing Gas " bath, from the frequent 
toxic effect on bathers of inhaling a mixture of carbonic 
acid and sulphuretted hydrogen, and on account of their 
danger these baths are now very httle used. 

Some of them contain free mineral acids, others are 
neutral or only give an acid reaction from the amount of 
free carbonic acid they contain. Typical examples of the 
former are the " Coffee Pot " and the Cameron Springs, and 
of the latter the Sulphur Point Mud Spring, all at Rotorua. 

Their waters are of the consistency of pea-soup, of a 

dark-brown colour, generally with an oily scum floating 

on the top, and their sides are composed of the dried and 

solidified dark- brown greasy mud such as is used for the 

mud baths (vide fig. 30). 

Coffee Pot 

Grains per gallon. 
Sodium sulphate ...... 23-71 

Hydrochloric acid (free) ..... 7-66 

Sulphuric acid (free) ...... 7-60 

Total solids (apart from mud) .... 60-19 



202 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Cameron Spring 

Grains per gallon. 
Sodium sulphate ...... 44"54 

Hydrochloric acid (free) ..... 5-92 

Gases . . . abundant HoS and CO, 

Total solids (apart from mud) .... 80-50 

Sulphur Point Mud Spring (1907) 

Sodium chloride ...... 8o'85 

Sodium silicate ...... 26-30 

Carbonic acid (free) ...... 14-90 

Total solids (apart from mud) .... 141 "72 



Below is given an analysis ^ of the muddy deposit 
of this spring, from which, and from similar material, 
the mud baths of Rotorua principally are made. It consists 
mainly of silica, and is noticeable in that it, contains both 
gold and silver. On account of its interest I have given 
Dr. Maclaurin's percentage analysis in full : 



Silica 

Alumina . 
Iron oxides 
Titanium oxide 
Lime 

Magnesia . 
Soda and potash 
Sulphur (combined) 
Sulphur (free) 
Organic matter . 
Water 



Per cent. 
69-30 

4-52 
2-00 
058 
I 00 

o-io 

1-30 

1-40 
6-09 

lO-OI 

370 



Microscopic examination of the deposit showed that it 
consisted mainly of quartz and amorphous silica, with a 
little feldspar. The mud also contains 5 grains of gold 
and 6 dwt. i grain of silver per ton. 



CLASS IX. ARSENICAL WATERS 

There are no springs containing arsenic used for thera- 
peutic purposes in New Zealand. Several" springs contain 

^ For a percentage analysis of the solid mud which forms the basis 
of the mud baths see p. 88. 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 203 

traces of arsenic ; others, again, reputed to do so, such as 
the " Arsenic Spring " in the Spa grounds at Taupo, contain 
none at all. 

There is one spring, however, which, though its per- 
centage of arsenic is moderate, is of so huge an output as 
to dwarf completely all the arsenical springs of Europe 
put together. This is the hot acid lake on White Island, 
some 15 acres in extent (vide p. 198). 

The waters, however, are so highly mineralized as to be 
unfit for either internal or external medication. 





EUROPE 








La Bourboule 




Grains per gallon 


Sodium chloride 


. 




196 


Sodium bicarbonate .... 


, 


196 


Sodium arseniate 


. 




1-96 


Total solids 




. 


448-00 




Temperature 140° F. 








NEW ZEALAND 






White 


Island Lake, 15 acres 


(1909- 


-10) 


Arsenious oxide 


. • • 


, 


0-392 


Total solids 






. 6,469-65 


Temperature no" F. to 21. 


1° F. 





Burton's Spring, Taupo (Hector) 
" Traces of arsenic." 

CLASS X. BORATED WATERS 

Salts of boron are not uncommon in the waters of volcanic 
springs, but they are rare in mineral waters used for thera- 
peutic purposes, and but scanty reference to borated waters 
can be found in balneological textbooks. 

In some of the waters of Italy sodium borate is present 
in such large quantities that the springs are exploited 
commercially. In Tuscany the waters are evaporated 
by the aid of the natural heat of fumaroles, and the extraction 
of the borate has proceeded on so large a scale that quite 
a thriving little manufacturing town has arisen. 



204 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

In America there are several borated springs in California, 
one of which contains as much as 20175 grains of borate 
per U.S. gallon. Traces of boron are found in the springs 
of Baden (Switzerland), but appear to be of no therapeutic 
importance. 

In several New Zealand waters, however, the salt is 
present in considerable quantities and has a marked pharma- 
cological influence. 

In the earlier analyses the borates were overlooked, and 
it was not until the occasional inexplicable purging and 
irritant effect of these waters directed attention to them 
and brought about a fresh analysis that the boron was 
discovered. 

Pharmacological Action. — Borates have been used as a 
substitute for bromides in epilepsy, but their action is 
uncertain and apt to be attended by uncomfortable toxic 
symptoms. G. Seng ' used boracic acid and borax for 
reducing weight, giving small doses, gradually increased 
to 15 grains or 20 grains a day, but found the drug not 
well borne. Boracic acid has been used also in diabetes, 
apparently with some success, while its action as a urinary 
antiseptic is of course familiar. The sphere of useful action 
of the borates, then, would appear to be distinctly limited. 

On the other hand, the toxic effects of boric acid are 
well known. 

Cases of severe gastro intestinal disturbances in infants 
as a result of the too free and injudicious use of borax and 
honey have frequently been recorded,' and the use of 
boracic acid as a food preservative has been strictly regulated 
by Health Departments ' throughout the world. Chevalier * 

1 Treatment, August 1903, quoting Ther. d. Gegern., April 1903. 

2 Cf. McNeill, B.M.J. . July 20, 1912. 

3 Boric acid has an irritative eflfect on the alimentary tract and may 
produce headache, malaise, abdominal discomfort, vomiting, diarrhcEa, 
skin eruptions, and defective assimilation of food (Report of Dr. Hamill, 
L.G.B. Food Dept., 1910). The Local Government Board Circular, 1906, 
lays down that boric acid in a solution of over 40 grains per gallon is 
injurious to infants. 

* Revue Frang. de Med. et de Chir.. January 1905. 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 205 

pointed out the danger of the drug when ehmination is 
defective, e.g. in renal insufficiency. 

On the whole, then, it would seem, in the present state 
of our knowledge, wiser not to use the strongly borated 
waters by the mouth, though of course the weaker waters 
such as the Rachel, which contains less than 2 grains of 
borate per gallon, are quite innocuous. 

AMERICA 
Hot Borate Spring, California 

Grains per U.S. gallon. 
Borates ........ 201-75 

NEW ZEALAND 
Hanmer (1912-13) 1 

Grains per gallon. 
Sodium borate ....... I7"57 

Total solids ....... 81 -68 

" Magnesia Spring," Taupo (1913) 
Sodium borate ....... 3-69 

Total solids ....... 108-78 

PuKETiTiRi, Napier (1913) 
Sodium borate ....... 3-03 

Total solids ....... 23-64 

White Island Lake (1910) 
Boron trioxide . . . . . . . 2i'7 

Total solids ....... 6,469-6 

Te Kuiti (1913) 

(Vide also " Calcic Sodic Muriated Waters ") 

Sodium borate ....... 8-05 

Total solids ....... 1,454-46 

Hikutaia, Ohinemuri (1915-16) 
Sodium borate ....... 4-06 



Sodium bicarbonate 



57-82 



Total solids ....... 77-98 

Carbonic acid (free) ...... 16-24 

Miranda (1919) 
Borax, crystallized . . . . . . 4-9 

Total solids . . . . . . . 39-13 

1 Some of the original springs unconnected with the bore probably 
contain less borate, and in that case would be more suitable for internal 
administration. Further analysis is desirable to elucidate this point. 



206 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

CLASS XI. TABLE WATERS 

This is a somewhat ih-defined group of waters, character- 
ized by feeble minerahzation, and usuaUy by the presence 
of a considerable amount of carbonic acid gas, either 
artificially prepared or obtained from the same spring 
as the water and bottled with it. As the name implies, 
such waters are not intended primarily for medical purposes, 
and are valued rather as a pleasant drink whose purity 
is above suspicion. 

In New Zealand omnipotent tea has largely ousted water 
from the dietary of teetotalers, and, for the rest, table 
waters are judged chiefly from the point of view of their 
good or bad admixture with whisky. It is essential, 
therefore, that the mineralization should not be too strong, 
and more particularly that there should be as little iron 
present as possible, as this blackens with the tannic acid 
derived from the spirit casks, or with that more abundantly 
present in wines. 

Apart from this use, table waters have an undoubted 
therapeutic application. They are generally weakly alkaline, 
the salts of sodium, calcium, or magnesium preponderating, 
and, rightly used, are of service in dyspepsia. The carbonic 
acid they contain stimulates the gastric mucous membrane 
and promotes peristalsis. As a rule, too, they are diuretic, 
and their essential use in medicine is to act as a pleasant 
flush to the system. 

There are very many springs in New Zealand that would 
make ideal table waters, but, for reasons already given, 
the demand is comparatively limited, and some of those 
waters that are bottled are, by reason of their high minerali- 
zation, rather medicinal than true table waters. Indeed, 
it is obvious that there can be no hard-and-fast line, and 
that such waters must at one end shade off gradually into 
the muriated, the alkaline, or the calcareous classes. 

From what has been said already (p. 27), it is evident 
that the waters of siliceous districts should form an ideal 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 207 

basis for a table water. They are remarkably pure, of a 
characteristic clear, sparkling appearance, and conspicuously 
palatable. Such a spring as Hamurana, which is the 
uprising of an underground river, whose waters are absolutely 
pure and abundant enough to supply the table water 
of a continent, must surely some day be bottled for the 
needs of less fortunate districts : and there are many such 
springs flowing into the Rotorua chain of lakes. 

It should be added that several of the most famous 
table waters of Europe are " doctored," generally for the 
purpose of removing traces of iron. The perfect table 
water should be absolutely untouched and should be bottled 
with its own carbonic acid gas. 

One or two of the New Zealand waters fulfil these con- 
ditions. 

EUROPE 



Selters Water (Seltzer Water) 



Sodium chloride 
Sodium bicarbonate . 
Calcium bicarbonate . 
Magnesium bicarbonate 



Grains per gallon. 

1400 

70-0 

35-0 

17-5 



NEW ZEALAND 



Wairongoa 




Sodium chloride .... 


2273 


Sodium bicarbonate .... 


20-gi 


Sodium sulphate .... 


1470 


Calcium bicarbonate . . . .> 


67-86 


Magnesium bicarbonate 


35-89 


Total solids ..... 


• 16575 



Together with a large amount of free carbonic acid gas, which 
is bottled with the water. 

Several other waters already classed under other headings, 
as alkaline, muriated, magnesia, etc., are bottled as table 
waters. Some of these, such as the alkaline Te Aroha and 
Puriri waters, are reaUy too heavily mineralized to be classed 
as simple table waters ; others, such as the magnesia waters 
of Te Aroha and the calcareous waters of Kamo, contain 



208 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

appreciable quantities of iron. Their analyses have been 
already given. 

CLASS XI L MUDS 

Although it is not strictly logical to class the muds 
under the head of " waters," yet, as they are used in similar 
fashion for baths, it is practically convenient. 

As we have already seen (pp. 47-48), the Thermal District 
is honeycombed by boiling mud springs. These are caused 
by the escape of steam through a stratum of clay. The 
steam, with its concomitant hydrogen sulphide and sul- 
phurous acid, softens the clay into a smooth paste, while 
the sulphur compounds are partially oxidized into sulphuric 
acid and other sulphates, with the deposition of sulphur. 

As a result we get a bland siliceous mass, acid in reaction, 
and containing a good deal of free sulphur. 

The analyses of different samples vary slightly, and the 
general appearance of the different muds varies a good deal , 
depending as it does upon the nature of the clay. Thus, 
within a few yards of each other, we may find boiling mud 
pools black, grey, red, or nearly white, for the clays of the 
district are rainbow-hued. The most common colour, 
however, is a dark grey-brown. 

With certain consistencies of mud the material, instead 
of forming boiling cauldrons, is heaped up into miniature 
volcanic cones (vide fig. 35). 

Such muds are absolutely free from grit, and, as they 
dry on the skin, have a feeling that can only be described 
as " sebaceous." They readily wash off, and leave the skin 
soft and hyperaemic. Their action in baths is much that 
of the peat baths of Europe, which also are acid — that is 
to say, they are soothing and pain-relieving, and at the same 
time stimulant to the skin circulation. They may be used 
diluted as immersion baths, or in full strength in poultice 
form, and are indicated in arthritic and other painful 
conditions, whether of rheumatic, gouty, or traumatic 
origin, and perhaps most of all in chronic disease of the skin. 



CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSES 209 

The above description is of the usual mud to be found 
throughout the Thermal District. For convenience of 
transport, the dried deposit from the sides of the springs 
is artificially broken down by steam for the baths at Rotorua. 
This deposit, as we have shown elsewhere, is somewhat 
more radio-active than the fresh hot mud in the spring, 
but the activity is hardly enough to be of any probable 
therapeutic importance. 



Analysis of Mud : Subclass (a), Siliceous Sulphur Mud 

(i) Direct from hot spring, 
(ii) Dry mud as used at baths. 

AIR-DRIED SAMPLES 







(i) 


(ii) 


Silica 


SiOj 


61-65 


48-52 


Alumina 


AljOa . 


21-84 


28-45 


Iron oxide 


Fe^Oa . 


0-56 


0-40 


Titanium dioxide 


Ti.p 


0-40 


0-40 


Lime 


CaO 


0-30 


0-40 


Magnesia 


MgO . 


020 


0-23 


Alkalies 


NapKjO 


0-50 


nil 


Free sulphur 


— 


0-85 


o-o8 


Sulphuric anhydride 


SO2 


2-8o 


o-8i 


Water and organic matter 


— 


11-05 


20-46 






100-15 


99-75 



Both samples were examined for gold and silver with the following 
results : 



Gold 
Silver 



(i) (ii) 

Grs. per ton. 

0-5 nil 

7 o nil 



Subclass (b), Mercurial Mud 

There is a very remarkable group of springs at Ohaewai 

in the north, near the Bay of Islands. A number of 

boiling or nearly boiling springs of sulphuretted, muriated, 

alkaline, and acid waters arise in the midst of the old 

14 



210 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

workings of a mercury mine, itself desolate in a setting of old 
gum fields.' 

The hot water and steam have decomposed the cinnabar 
ore alongside, and mercury is deposited in visible metallic 
globules in the hot mud. This mud, used by the Maori 
as a parasiticide, has obvious possibilities for inunction 
in syphilis, more especially in conjunction with the hot 
sulphur baths alongside. 

At present these baths are unused, but we can imagine 
how such a combination would excite the envy of the 
authorities at Aachen ! 

The analysis of the waters is as follows : 

OHAEWAI (1908) 

(i) (ii) (iii)2 (iv) 

Spring No. I. Shaft Spring. Mercury Spring, Petroleum Spring 
Grains per gall. Grains per gall. Grains per gall . Grains per gall. 



Sodium chloride 


87-0 


I'l 


29-9 


1-5 


Potassium chloride 


12-7 




2-1 


— 


Sodium sulphate 
Potassium sulphate . 




20-2 

6-3 


i3-3\ 


6-5 


Calcium sulphate 


3-4 


6.7 


8-4 


2-4 


Magnesium sulphate . 


2-4 


3-6 


31 


03 


Ferrous sulphate 


— 


41 


— 


o-i 


Sodium bicarbonate . 


65-0 


— 


— 


— 


Ferrous bicarbonate 


i-o 






— 


Silica 


— 


3-6 




IO-2 


Sodium silicate . 


7-1 


45-6 


— 





Total solids 


1786 


56-8 


2I-0 


Free U^SOt 


— 


.50-9 


— 


1080 


„ CO2 




49-5 


— 





.. H,S 


— 


i-i 


— 






^ Large areas in the peninsula north of Auckland have been dug over 
and riddled with spade and spear in the search for the valuable kauri 
gum deposited by the primeval kauri forests. Kauri gum is still a large 
industry' in " the North." 

2 Metalhc mcrcurj' is deposited in the mud surrounding this spring. 



CHAPTER XIV 

THE CLIMATE OF NEW ZEALAND ^ 

The climate of New Zealand is spoken of in popular and 
general terms as equable, mild, and salubrious, but such 
a summary does not convey an adequate idea of variations 
that exist in a country stretching as it does, north and south, 
for nearly a thousand miles, and distinctly differentiated 
by lofty mountain chains. Another fact which must also 
be borne in mind is that the greater part of the North Island 
is controlled by a different system of circulation from that 
which dominates conditions in the parts about Cook Strait 
and the South Island. The former is subject to ex-tropical 
disturbances, and the latter more to westerly and Antarctic 
"lows," which travel along the latitudes of the "forties"' 
with their prevailing westerly winds. 

The climate of the Auckland Province, speaking generally, 
combines degrees of warmth and humidity agreeable by 
day and comfortable by night. North of Auckland City 
conditions are almost sub-tropical, and in summer balmy 
easterly breezes prevail, and are responsible for delightful 
conditions. In winter the winds are more north and west, 
while changes to the south-east or south-west mostly account 
for the rainfall. Cumulus clouds are frequently formed 
in the afternoons, and, while tempering the heat of the day, 
also cut down sunshine records somewhat, but add con- 
siderably to the beauty of land- and seascape. Southward 
of Auckland the climate is more varied, the west coast 
experiencing more rain, while the central parts are warmer 

1 This chapter has been kindly contributed by the Rev. D. C. Bates, 
Director of the Dominion Meteorological Office. 

211 



212 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 



AUCKLAND 





Mean temperatures for 56 years. 


Mean rainfall for 67 years. 




Month. 












Mean sunshine 












for 10 years. 




Max. °F. 


Min. °F. 


Mean "F. 


Rainfall. 


Days. 












Inches. 




Hours. Mins. 


January . 


73-7 


58-9 


66-5 


2-54 


IO-3 


217 25 


February . 


74-3 


59-6 


67-1 


296 


9-6 


176 37 


March 


72-0 


57-7 


65-0 


3-02 


ii-i 


171 58 


April 


67-8 


54-6 


6l-2 


330 


139 


139 8 


May . 


62-7 


50-5 


56-7 


4-45 


18-3 


129 17 


June 


59-2 


47-8 


53-5 


4-72 


19-4 


113 45 


July. 


57-6 


46-0 


51-8 


5-15 


2I-0 


"4 57 


August 


58-2 


46-0 


522 


4-24 


19-6 


137 " 


September 


60-7 


48-4 


54-7 


3-6i 


17-6 


136 48 


October . 


63-5 


50-7 


57-3 


360 


16-4 


159 42 


November 


670 


53-3 


6o-2 


3-28 


14-6 


184 23 


December . 


70-9 


56-7 


63-9 


2-8o 


"•5 


213 52 


Year . 


65-6 


52-5 


59-2 


43-67 


183-3 


1,895 3 



ROTORUA 





Mean temperatures foi 


32 years. 


Mean rainfall for 34 years. 




Month. 












Mean sunshine 












for 8 years. 




M.-ix. "F. 


Min. "F. 


Mean "F. 


Rainfall. 


Days. 












Inches. 




Hours. Mins. 


January . 


75-5 


52-3 


63-9 


3-95 


9-5 


253 39 


February . 


74-9 


52-2 


63-4 


3-83 


8-7 


190 59 


March 


71-8 


49-4 


606 


3-68 


9-7 


191 24 


April 


660 


45-4 


55-6 


4-26 


IO-8 


160 23 


May. 


6o-o 


40-7 


50-3 


5-52 


12-5 


141 41 


June 


55-6 


38-2 


46-8 


4-86 


12-9 


119 40 


July. 


54-2 


37-0 


45-5 


529 


I4-I 


127 14 


August 


561 


37-5 


46-7 


501 


13-4 


148 15 


September 


59-6 


40-8 


50-2 


5-14 


14-4 


156 5 


October 


639 


440 


54-0 


4-89 


I4-I 


187 5 


November 


68-3 


467 


57-5 


409 


12-8 


213 44 


December . 


72-8 


49-6 


6i-i 


3-63 


9-7 


228 28 


Year . 


649 


44-5 


54-6 


54-15 


142-6 


2,118 37 



in the day and considerably colder at night. In the winter 
months frosts, which are unknown farther north, now and 
then occur in the hours of darkness. Eastward from Rotorua 
(the great health resort and centre of the thermal region) 
is to be found one of the most genial climates in the world, 



THE CLBIATE OF NEW ZEALAND 213 

and Tauranga and Opotiki have charms all their own, 
especially for their weather and the fruits which ripen to 
perfection in these regions. 

The monthly and annual means of the temperature, 
rainfall, and sunshine of Auckland are shown in the table 
on p. 212. 

The Hawke's Bay Province is one of the richest in New 
Zealand and is favoured with a pleasant climate, being 
sheltered from westerly winds, though occasionally they are 
of the warm and dry (Foehn) type. It is rather dry, but 
ex-tropical disturbances are occasionally responsible for 
heavy downpours, while, though the number of ' ' days with 
rain " is less and sunshine above that of other parts, the 
rainfall is still a good one and fairly regular throughout 
the year, though some seasons have been notably dry. 
The meteorological records of Napier show reliable normals 
for the coastal districts. Inland, the country is rather 
mountainous and less mild. 



HAWKE'S BAY PROVINCE 





Mean temperatures for 


29 years. 


Mean rainfall for 15 years. 




\Tontli 












Sunshine 


lTl.LfLl LU t 












for 13 years. 


■ 


Max. °F. 


Mill. °F. 


Mean "F. 


Rainfall. 


Days. 












Inches. 




Hours. Mins. 


January . 


75-9 


57 





66-4 


1-64 


6-4 


281 5 


February . 


74-5 


56 


7 


65-6 


2-47 


6-4 


212 56 


March 


71-2 


54 


7 


63-0 


3-86 


9-3 


211 49 


April 


67-2 


50 


4' 


58-7 


2-58 


7-9 


195 27 


May. 


6i-7 


46 


3 


54-0 


4-42 


9-7 


159 20 


June 


58-0 


42 


3 


50-1 


2-59 


7-9 


165 40 


July. 


56-5 


41 


6 


49-0 


3-95 


IO-8 


149 27 


August 


57-9 


42 


I 


50-0 


3-13 


IO-8 


187 14 


September 


62-3 


45 


-> 


53-7 


1-83 


8-3 


220 11 


October . 


66-4 


48 


7 


57-5 


2-44 


9-1 


235 38 


November 


6g-6 


51 


8 


60-7 


2-17 


8-4 


245 42 


December . 


73-1 


55-3 


64-2 


2-07 


7-1 


275 38 


Year . 


66-2 


49-3 


57-7 


33-15 


I02-1 


2,540 7 



Wellington, the capital city, as disclosed by its meteoro- 
logical records, has a mean climate for the whole Dominion. 



214 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Wellington occupies a central position and is situated 
near Cook Strait, which divides the two main Islands. It 
has a somewhat changeable but temperate climate, and, 
though occasionally subject to disturbances from warmer 
regions, is usually controlled by the terrestrial wind-currents 
which have a westerly direction round the world in the 
latitude of the " forties." It is popularly regarded as a 
rather windy spot, for high winds are frequently experienced, 
but they hardly ever reach hurricane force. Its windiness 
owes much to local configuration, for places quite near 
Wellington experience very little wind, and to compensate 
for this rather disagreeable element there is a bountiful 
sunshine, averaging 2,038 hours per annum, and there is a 
plentiful rainfall, amounting to nearly 50 inches. 
The climatic means for Wellington are as follows : 





Mean temperatures for 56 years. 


Mean rainfall for 58 years. 






Month. 












Mean sunshine 












for 13 years. 




Max. °F. 


Min.^F. 


Mean F". 


Rainfall. 


Days. 














Inches. 




Hours. 


Mins. 


January . 


694 


55-8 


62-5 


3-28 


10-4 


232 


30 


February . 


6g-2 


55-7 


62.5 


323 


91 


208 


50 


March 


66-8 


54-2 


60-5 


3-29 


II-7 


176 


37 


April 


62-8 


513 


57-0 


389 


132 


153 


58 


May. 


58-3 


47-3 


52-8 


4-8i 


16-7 


130 


50 


June 


54-7 


44-3 


49-5 


4-93 


17-3 


103 


39 


July. 


53-1 


42-3 


47-7 


5-8i 


i8-4 


lOI 


31 


August 


54-4 


42-8 


48-6 


4-46 


17-0 


142 


2 


September 


57-4 


45-7 


51-6 


4- 09 


15-2 


161 


29 


October 


603 


483 


54-3 


413 


I4-I 


178 


32 


November 


634 


504 


569 


348 


12-8 


207 


3 


December . 


66-9 


53-8 


6o-3 


3-21 


I2-I 


240 


55 


Year 


61-4 


49-3 


55-3 


48-61 


168-0 


2.037 


55 



Between Wellington and Taranaki, following the Taranaki 
Bight, is probably one of the most fertile and agreeable 
regions in Australasia ; but inland, though very productive, 
conditions are not so favourable. 

Taranaki has a rather heavy rainfall, and in most parts 
of this region the grass is always green. Its climate is mild, 



THE CLIMATE OF NEW ZEALAND 215 

and cattle winter in the open. Wanganui and Palmerston 
North districts (which lie between Wellington and Taranaki) 
have less rainfall than either Wellington or Taranaki, and 
have advantages over other parts of both Wellington and 
Taranaki. 

It may be useful to make a comparison between the 
records of Wellington and Campden Hill, London ; 



CAMPDEN HILL, LONDON 



Month. 


Mean max. °F. 


Mean min. °F. 


35 years. Mean °F. 


January 


43-5 


340 


38-8 


February 






45-6 


34-4 


40-0 


March 






50-I 


35-6 


42-9 


April . 






57-4 


39-4 


484 


May . 






64-9 


45-2 


55-1 


June . 






709 


51-0 


610 


July . 






74-1 


54-4 


643 


August 






72-6 


53-7 


63-2 


September 






67-4 


49-8 


586 


October 






57-5 


43-9 


50-7 


November 






49-7 


38-9 


44-3 


December 




45-1 


35-8 


40-5 


Year 


58-2 


430 


50-6 



MOUMAHAKI (TARANAKI) 





Mean temperatures for 


14 years. 


Mean rainfall for 15 years. 






Month. 












Mean su 
for 13 


nshine 














years. 




Max. "F. 


Min. -F. 


Mean "F. 


Raintall. 


Days. 














Inches. 




Hrs. 


Mins. 


January . 


70-0 


53-3 


6l-6 


3-03 


9-5 


236 


12 


February . 


70-8 


53-3 


62-1 


2-79 


8-0 


186 


58 


March 


69-6 


52-4 


6i-o 


3-85 


9-1 


179 


35 


April 


64-4 


48-2 


56-3 


3-94 


131 


152 


53 


May. 


59-1 


44-1 


51-6 


4-17 


14-0 


121 


22 


June 


55-1 


42-5 


48-8 


4-39 


15-2 


99 


53 


July. 


53-7 


40-9 


47-3 


4-27 


16-9 


106 


54 


August 


55-5 


41-8 


48-7 


3-67 


146 


138 


51 


September 


58-8 


44-8 


51-8 


4-04 


14-2 


- 150 


5 


October 


6i-8 


47-0 


54-3 


441 


150 


163 


21 


November 


64-6 


49-1 


56-8 


3-6i 


12-8 


168 


42 


December 


68-2 


50-9 


59-5 


3-59 


I2-I 


231 


12 


Year . 


62-6 


47-4 


55-0 


45-76 


154-5 


1.935 


58 



216 THE HUT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Nelson and Marlborough arc highly favoured regions 
with regard to sunshine and shelter from marine winds. 
Long ago Bishop Selwyn said : " No one knows what the 
climate is till he has basked in the almost perpetual sunshine 
of Tasman's Gulf, with a frame braced and invigorated to 
the full enjoyment of heat by the wholesome frost or cool 
snowy breeze of the night before." 

Pastoral and agricultural industries are thriving, and the 
Province of Nelson is also famous for its fruit cultures — 
apples especially being celebrated for their variety, colour, 
and flavour. The rainfall about Nelson is very reliable and 
averages from 35 to 45 inches per annum. Marlborough is 
also a sunny province, and its rainfall averages from 25 
to 30 inches. 

The records for Nelson arc as follows : 



Month. 


Mean temperatures for 31 years. 


Mean rainfall for 37 years. 


Max.^F. 


Min. °F. 


Mean "F. 


Rainfall. 


Da>-s. 


January 
February . 
March 
April 
May . 
June. 
July . 
August 
September. 
October 
November 
December . 

Year 


75-5 
74-6 
71-4 
66-5 
6o-3 
562 
54-7 
567 
608 
649 
69-0 
720 

652 


53-8 

53-9 

51-4 

47-4 

42-5 

389 

37-7 
386 

42-2 

4.50 

484 

51-4 

45-9 


646 
64-1 
61-3 
57-0 
51-3 
47-5 
46-2 
47-6 
51-5 
5.5 -o 
.58-7 
6i-8 

55-6 


Inches. 
2-66 
2-68 
2-99 
2-87 
320 
382 
3-6i 
3-OI 

370 

3-24 
2-91 
2-68 

37-37 


7-9 
6-6 
8-9 
9-6 
lo-o 

lOI 
II-2 

IO-5 

12-2 

11-9 

"•3 

8-8 
119-0 



The climate of Westland is influenced by its position with 
regard to the prevailing westerly winds, its proximity to the 
sea, from which these winds blow across the Tasman Sea, 
and the mountainous character of its eastern half. The 
rainfall, as might be expected, is heavy, and ranges from about 
70 inches per annum in the north on the coast to as much 
as 200 inches in the mountainous country. The weather 



THE CLIMATE OF NEW ZEALAND 217 

changes are chiefly due to atmospheric depressions, with 
lowest pressures passing south of the Dominion. Cyclones 
centred in the north, while bringing heavy rains to the 
North Island and the East Coast portions of the South, do 
not, as a rule, affect Westland, as easterly winds which then 
prevail are not conducive to cloud formation in this pro- 
vince. Sunshine averages 1,858 hours a year, and, though not 
so abundant as in East Coast districts, is a good average 
amount considering the rainfall. Westland is noted for a 
clear, beautiful atmosphere during fair-weather periods. 



HOKITIKA 





Mean temperatures foi 


• 34 years. 


Mean rainfall for 40 years 






Month. 












Sunshine for 












7 years. 




Max. °F. 


Min. =F. 


Mean °F. 


Rainfall. 


Days. 














Inches. 




Hours. 


Mins. 


Januar}^ . 


67-9 


53-7 


60 


8 


' 9-92 


12-2 


189 


27 


February- . 


68-4 


53-3 


60 


8 


7-54 


II-O 


174 


29 


March 


66-2 


51-3 


58 


7 


9-85 


137 


176 


38 


April 


62-7 


47-2 


54 


9 


8-94 


14-9 


131 


10 


May. 


58-3 


42-5 


50 


4 


1003 


15-5 


139 


23 


June 


54-9 


39-1 


47 





9- 90 


15-3 


lOI 


15 


July. 


52-9 


36-7 


44 


8 


9-05 


i6-3 


105 


I 


August 


54-6 


38-1 


46 


3 


g-02 


15-8 


150 


II 


September 


57-8 


42-4 


50 


I 


9-37 


16-5 


133 


51 


October . 


59-8 


45-7 


52 


7 


11-50 


18-7 


161 


35 


November 


62-3 


48-4 


55 


3 


10-31 


17-0 


174 


5 


December 


66-3 


52-2 


59-2 


IO-54 


15-8 


220 


33 


Year 


60-9 


45-8 


53-3 


105-62 


152-2 


1,857 


38 



The district of Canterbury comprises a variety of topo- 
graphical features. A plain stretches over a hundred miles 
from north-east to south-west with a maximum width of 
about 40 miles, from the East Coast to the foothills to the 
westward. The latter merge into the mountainous country 
culminating in the main range of the Southern Alps, which 
divide the provinces of Canterbury and Westland, and afford 
a protection from the heavily moisture-laden north-westerly 
winds. The rainfall of the Canterbury Plains is, in conse- 
quence, much restricted, the average being about 26 inches. 



218 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 



There is, however, a remarkable progressive increase from 
east to west, as is shown by the records. At Christchurch 
the mean is 2513 inches, at Mt. Torlesse Station (near 
Springfield) 39-86 inches. The climate of Canterbury 
might almost be described as continental in type, with 
large extremes of temperature between summer and winter 
and day and night. Except in the three summer months, 
frosts are numerous, and even in the early spring and late 
autumn they are at times severe enough t-o damage vegeta- 
tion of a tender nature. In summer day temperatures of 
over 90° in the shade are sometimes experienced. Both with 
regard to climate and soil " the Plains " have proved most 
suitable for agricultural farming, and much of the district is 
capable of growing splendid cereal and root crops. The pre- 
vailing winds in Canterbury are north-east and south-west, 
while north- westerlies are not, as often supposed, of frequent 
occurrence. They are most common in the springtime, and 
being dry and warm they have a somewhat enervating effect, 
though in winter- time they come as a welcome change from 
the keen temperatures then generally ruling. The bright 
sunshine as recorded at Lincoln shows a daily average for 
the year of 58 hours. 

CHRISTCHURCH 



Month 




Mean temperatures for 23 years. 


Mean rainfall for 42 years. 




Max.'F. 


MiQ. "F. 


Mean »F. 


Rainfall. 


Days. 


January 

February 

March 

April 

May . 

June. 

July . 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Year 




70-7 
69-3 
66-4 
6i-8 
56-1 
50-9 
49-9 

52-2 

57-2 

62-2 
660 
69-8 

610 


52-6 

52-6 
500 

45-1 
40-1 
36-0 

34-9 
362 

40-5 
43-6 
47-4 
51-4 

44-2 


6l-6 
609 

58-2 

53-4 
481 

43-4 

42-4 
44-2 
48-8 

529 

56-7 
6o-6 

526 


Inches. 
2-o6 
1-87 

2-21 
1-92 
2-56 
2-67 
2-87 

1-79 
1-69 
1-64 
1-85 

2-11 
25-23 


9-1 
7-9 
9-5 
9-5 
II-6 

12-4 

13-4 

II-O 

9-9 

9-3 
IO-3 

9-5 
123-4 



THE CLOIATE OF NEW ZEALAND 219 

The chief health resort of the South Island, Hanmer Spa, 
is in North Canterbury, situated on a small plateau. On 
account of its altitude, i,i20 feet, it enjoys an invigorating 
climate, with a mean annual temperature of only about 
one degree below that of Christchurch. Owing to its elevated 
position and nearness to the mountains, Hanmer is, in some 
winter seasons, subject to rather severe snow-storms such 
as are never experienced on the Canterbury Plains. 

The mean annual rainfall is 38 15 inches, and the mean 
total sunshine 1,992 hours. 

The surrounding country is used for sheep grazing, the 
pasture being chiefly the native tussock grass, which is 
common to all the uncultivated hill country of Canterbury. 

Otago, as the southernmost part of New Zealand is now 
known, is very diversified both as regards its physical 
features and its climate. Inland, in Central and North 
Otago, the climate is dry and clear — hot in summer and cold 
in winter. The rainfall for this district averages from 13 
to 20 inches. Near the coast in the Dunedin district the 
rainfall is more plentiful, averaging from 30 to 40 inches 
per annum, a good deal of which falls in light, drizzUng 
rains. The records for Dunedin are as follows : 



Month. 


Mean temperatures for 55 years. 


Mean rainfall for 62 years. 














Max. °F. 


Min. °F. 


Mean 'F. 


Rainfall. 


Days. 










Inches. 




January 


66-4 


49-5 


57-0 


3-40 


14-2 


February . 


657 


49-4 


56-6 


2-79 


II-5 


March 


62-9 


47-8 


55-3 


2-96 


12-8 


April 


6o-3 


44-7 


51-6 


2-72 


12-8 


May . 


53-3 


41-0 


47-0 


3-31 


13-7 


June. 


49-3 


38-4 


43-1 


3-IO 


12-9 


July . 


47-5 


369 


41-5 


3-07 


13-2 


August 


49-9 


37-7 


43-1 


3-09 


12-7 


September. 


53-9 


40-7 


47-0 


2-71 


12-6 


October 


59-0 


42-7 


50-8 


3-05 


I4-I 


November . 


61-4 


44-9 


53-1 


3-23 


14-0 


December . 


64-5 


47-9 


55-3 


3-52 


14-5 


Year 


57-8 


43-5 


50-1 


36-95 


159-0 



220 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Queenstown, on Lake Wakatipu, amongst the mountains, 
at an elevation of over i,ooo feet, furnishes the following 
averages : 







Mean temperatures for 9 years. 


Mean rainfall for 30 years. 




Max. °F. 


Min. "F. 


Mean "F. 


Rainfall. 


Days. 


January 

February 

March 

April 

May . 

June. 

July. 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Year 




70-4 
70-2 
66-4 
59-1 
51-8 
43-9 
43-3 
47-3 
54-3 
59-8 
63-2 
68-0 

58-3 


49-9 
49-6 

47-9 
43-8 
386 

33-7 
318 

33-8 

38-7 
421 

44-5 
49-2 . 

420 


6o-i 
59-9 
57-1 
5^-5 
45-2 
39-7 
37-5 
40-6 

465 
50-9 
53-8 
58-6 

50-1 


Inches. 
2-82 
1-82 

2-55 
2-97 

2-63 

2-39 
I 89 

1-82 

2 -Go 

3 69 

2-74 

2-44 
303^ 


8-8 
5-6 

7-2 
7-9 

7-5 
6-9 
.5-9 

6-2 

7-5 
91 
8-4 
8-1 

8yi 



At Invercargill, the chief town of Southland, the averages 
are as follows : 





Mean temperatures for 


[I years. 


Mean rainfall for 26 years. 


Month. 










Max. "F. 


Min. °F. 


Mean 1". 


Rainfall. 


Days. 










Inches, 




January 


65-8 


48-3 


57-0 


4-28 


15-8 


February . 


65-7 


47-6 


56-6 


2-86 


11-7 


March 


64-4 


46-0 


55-2 


3-57 


140 


April 


59-1 


427 


50-9 


4-37 


16-7 


May . 


53-5 


37-7 


45-6 


4-59 


17-4 


June. 


49-7 


36-2 


42-9 


3-48 


150 


July . 


48-4 


34 -o 


41-2 


3-43 


15-8 


August 


52-1 


36-1 


44-1 


3-39 


14-6 


September. 


56-7 


.39 


47-8 


3-09 


13-7 


October 


59-5 


42-8 


5I-I 


4-75 


17-2 


November . 


6i-o 


43-6 


52-3 


4-45 


17-6 


December . 


63-8 


46-2 


55-0 


4-33 


15-5 


Year 


58-3 


41-7 


50-0 


46-59 


185-9 



THE CLDIATE OF NEW ZEALAND 221 

The average rainfall of Southland is between 40 and 50 
inches, but towards Queenstown the rainfall is between 
30 and 40 inches. The rainfall is well distributed throughout 
the year, but there is less wind in winter than in summer. 

Stewart Island has a wonderfully mild and moist climate, 
especially on its eastern side, with an average rainfall of 
65* 18 inches. 



PART III 
BALNEOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES 



CHAPTER XV 



SPA TREATMENT 



Indications for Spa Treatment. — Treatment at a mineral- 
water health resort, while useful in a limited number of 
sub-acute conditions, is indicated more especially in chronic 
disease — chronic affections of the joints, of the muscles, of 
the circulatory system, of the nervous system, of the digestive 
tract, and of the skin, and in cases of chronic toxaemia 
generally. 

It is also of special service in those numerous cases in 
which the condition displays so slight a departure from 
the normal, or perhaps it would be more correct to say so 
subtle a departure from the normal, that one cannot label 
the illness, and indeed hesitates to apply the term " disease " 
at all. 

Yet, just as measles, taken in the aggregate, is a more 
serious menace to the human race than, say, plague, 
so these subtle and apparently trivial departures add perhaps 
more to the sum-total of human misery and human in- 
efficiency than do the more dramatic departures from health 
which we docket as distinct diseases. 

If one takes a dispassionate survey of the whole realm 
of medicine and surgery, it will be at once conceded that 
acute disease tends to monopolize the attention of our 
profession ; that the keenest interest and the most deter- 
mined effort are called forth by the acute case ; that when 
a case degenerates into the chronic stage, interest speedily 
declines, and the fight with disease is carried on in but 
half-hearted fashion. It is natural, and perhaps inevitable, 
that this should be so. To a minor degree we see the same 



226 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

thing in the rivalry between medicine and surgery : the 
direct methods, the tangible and often brilliant results of 
the surgeon, appeal to an ever- increasing army of aspirants. 

But however improved our methods, however brilliant 
our results, there yet remains that great multitude of chronic 
sufferers for whom treatment still seems so depressingly 
impotent — the great dull, hopeless mass that eventually 
fills the workhouse infirmaries or saddens and cripples 
countless households. 

Apart altogether from the point of view of the individual 
sufferer, however, the economic feature is one of the utmost 
importance. 

The man or woman of forty, crippled by chronic disease 
to a premature old age of work-sterility, is a loss of earning 
power to, as well as a direct burden upon, the community 
at large, and no effort can be too great, no sacrifice too 
heavy, which will lighten this burden. Apart from hygienic 
and preventive measures, which, of course, must take 
precedence of any remedial ones, balneological treatment, 
combined with physical treatment generally, is the most 
potent weapon at our disposal for combating this evil. 

Until comparatively recent years spa treatment has been 
largely, if not wholly, empirical ; and while universal 
experience has proved its beneficial results, how and to 
what extent the mineral water as such has been the respon- 
sible factor, and how far the other factors, such as rest, 
change, diet, and so forth, should be credited, have been 
questions discussed with some scepticism. 

In part this scepticism has been due to distrust of the 
popular empiric use of mineral waters, in part, it must be 
confessed, to our own loose terminology in the use of such 
words as " rheumatism," but most of all perhaps to the 
omission of the study of hydrology from the already over- 
burdened course of the medical student. 

Thus, while admitting that some of this is healthy scepti- 
cism, it must also be admitted that much of it is based on 
nothing more than a confessed ignorance of the subject. 



SPA TREATMENT 227 

and therefore, after going into a detailed account of the 
mineral waters of New Zealand, and of the treatment offered 
at its spas, it would seem not out of place to give a brief 
review of the science on which that treatment i^ based. 
The more thoroughly and carefully we examine the principles 
of medical hydrology the more clearly we shall see that 
balneology has a rational basis — that it rests on physio- 
logical data, on laws whose working we can follow and whose 
results we can forecast. 

As we examine the phenomena we shall see that the 
treatment is essentially an alterative one — that all its 
processes are conceived with the one fundamental idea of 
influencing metabolism ; and if we hold, as it would seem 
. that almost necessarily we must hold, that at any rate the 
vast bulk of chronic disease is due to chronic abnormality 
of metabolism — for even in cases of definite invasion by 
micro-organisms it is some preceding metabolic fault which 
has rendered that invasion possible — then such treatment 
is clearly indicated. 

The principal factors in a cure at a watering-place are : 

1. Mineral-water treatment. 

2. Accessory physical treatment. 

3. Diet and regulation of habits. 

4. Rest. 

5. Change of environment. 

6. Suggestion. 

Lastly, there is one factor — one most important factor — 
•in the system of spa treatment, and that is the spa physician 
himself. Thousands of cases of chronic disease pass through 
his hands in the course of years of practice, and it would 
be strange indeed if he did not come to have a special 
knowledge of these diseases, and opportunities for diagnosis 
denied to most. While on the one hand it is his duty 
to respect the confidence of the patient's own physician 
bv never questioning before the patient the accuracy of 



228 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

his diagnosis, it is equally his duty, both to the patient and 
to himself, to sift each case to the bottom, and to make his 
own independent conclusions. Thus, in a case of toxic 
arthritis, failure to discover the infecting focus, while 
relying on mineral water to remove the symptoms, may 
be not only disastrous to the patient, but bring discredit 
on the spa treatment as such and even reflect on the acumen 
of the doctor who sent the patient. The spa physician 
must possess not only diagnostic ability, but a fund of 
patience in dealing with chronic cases beyond the average 
of men. By his own faith and optimism, often under most 
discouraging conditions, he must cheer his patients up 
tlio toilsome path of recovery. 



CHAPTER XVI 

MINERAL-WATER TREATMENT 

Mineral-water treatment may be internal, by mouth 
administration, or external, by various baths and douches ; 
asageneralruleboth methods being employed simultaneously. 
In internal administration we rely on the absorption of 
the water and its contained salts, and look for a pharmaco- 
logical action ; in baths we look for no absorption and rely 
on the physical action of the mineral water. There are, 
however, some forms of internal administration, e.g. the 
Plombieres douche per rectum, in which mechanical action 
rather than absorption is aimed at. 

The question at once arises as to how much of the result 
of mineral-water treatment may be attributed to the action 
of the water, as such, to hydrotherapy, and how much to 
the mineral water in virtue of its ingredients. Further, 
what difference, if any, exists between a solution of salts 
prepared in distilled water by the chemist and a similar 
solution obtained from a mineral spring. 

Until recently the saline, and to some extent the gaseous, 
contents of mineral waters have alone been considered 
in comparative analyses, and, unless we are to recant all 
our belief in the efficacy of drugs, the importance of these 
ingredients, at any rate in internal administration, is obvious. 
Recent developments of science, however, have modified 
profoundly our whole conception of matter, and it is now 
realized that the v/hole question of mineral water is much 
more complex than hitherto assumed, and that certain 
heretofore unsuspected physical conditions of liquids may 
prove of importance equal, or more than equal, to the gross 
chemical ones revealed by ordinary analysis. 

It would naturally be supposed, and indeed is very 



230 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

widely affirmed, that an artificial mixture of salts in water 
would have the same physical properties, and give the same 
physiological results, as an apparently identical solution 
of mineral water. Spa physicians have always denied 
this proposition, but their denial, unsupported by scientific 
evidence except that of clinical experience, has naturally 
been attributed to interested motives or to a prejudice 
little removed from superstition. 

Whatever ground they may have had for this belief, the 
results of modern research show that there are other factors 
to be taken into consideration, and tend more and more to 
eonfirm those of clinical experience. We are still groping 
in the twilight of half-accepted theories and half-understood 
experiments, and the time is not yet ripe for dogmatism. 
But meantime we may consider some of the possible factors 
in the problem, in so far as we have yet grasped them. 

Before, then, we can answer the two questions propounded 
at the beginning of this chapter, we must determine what 
is the action on the body of plain water at various tempera- 
tures applied internally and externally, then pass in review 
these newly discovered physical properties of natural 
mineral waters, and finally and dispassionately consider 
whether they do or do not so differentiate a mineral water 
as to endow it with a power of influencing the organism 
not possessed by ordinarv water. 

The Quahty of Freshness. — This quality, common to 
all spring waters and not, of course, confined to mineral 
water, is very hard to define, and almost equally hard to 
explain. It is not, of course, a newly discovered property 
of water, and in certain directions its value has long been 
recognized. Fortescue Fox ^ has repeatedly drawn attention 
to its importance in drinking-water, and quotes the observa- 
tions of Dr. Ouiserne, based on the action of the baths of 

1 Roy. Soc. Med. Balneol. Sec, May 15, 191 1 : and Medical Hydrology, 191 3. 

It is not necessary to have recourse to Armand Gautier's views about the 
' 'endogenous ' ' origin and consequent nascent action of some mineral waters _ 
as freshness is a property common to all spring waters and to the sea. 



MINERAL-WATER TREAT^IENT 231 

Bagnoles de I'Orne, as to its equal importance in baths. 
As to myself, a long and peculiarly intimate experience 
of mineral springs when used in their natural state as baths, 
and of the same waters conveyed through pipes, has so 
impressed on me this view of Dr. Quiserne as to change my 
whole mental attitude in regard to balneology. For I 
regard the quality of freshness of at least as much importance 
in baths as in drinking water (cf. p. 83). 

As to what constitutes this quality. There can be no doubt 
that it is to a large extent, and personally I think chiefly, 
due to the presence of dissolved and free gases, but it may also 
be due in part to some of the conditions described below, 
or to some other undiscovered and unstable physical 
condition. 

Gases present in the water, and especially carbonic acid 
gas, render it more palatable and readily assimilated, and 
dissolved salts are thereby absorbed more rapidly. 

The other possible factors which we have to consider 
are ionization, osmotic pressure, radio-activity, and the 
colloidal state. 

Ionization. — A salt dissolved in water appears to undergo, 
apart from its mere solution, more or less profound chemico- 
physical modifications. A large proportion of its molecules 
is dissolved as such (electrically neutral molecules), but a 
certain proportion is split up into smaller electrically 
charged radicles or ions, which are quite distinct from atoms, 
and may consist, either of homogeneous atoms or of groups 
of combined and dissimilar atoms. These ions carry, some 
a charge of positive electricity — electro-positive ions — 
others a negative charge — electro-negative ions. Such a 
solution is a good electrical conductor or electrolyte. 

If now a constant current be passed between electrodes 
through the electrolyte, these ions may be collected, the 
electro-positive ions seeking the negative electrode or 
kathode, and hence being known as " kations," while the 
electro-negative ions are repelled from the kathode and seek 
[he anode, and are termed " anions." Metals and the ions 



232 TPTE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

of alkaloids are " kations," acid radicles and the hydroxyl 
ions of alkalies " anions." 

The degree to which this splitting off of ions takes place, 
or the " degree of dissociation," varies under different circum- 
stances. Up to the point of complete ionization (v. p, 76), 
the weaker the solution the greater the proportion of free 
ions, and the ionization of certain mineral waters is believed to 
be more complete than that of a corresponding artificial 
solution of salts, and that of weakly mineralized waters than 
that of stronger waters. The importance of these free ions 
from a therapeutic standpoint is very great ; indeed, to quote 
Leduc, " the majority of chemical, toxic, and therapeutic 
actions of electrolytic solutions are ionic in nature . . . 
and the majority of drugs given by the mouth owe their 
activity to ions. For example, we prescribe solutions of 
potassium iodide, which contain electrically neutral mole- 
cules KI, electro-positive ions K, electro-negative ions I. 
It is to these last that all the activity is due, and it is 
proportional to their concentration." 

Solutions capable of conducting electricity are known 
as electrolytes, and, as we have already seen, solutions 
containing many free ions are good conductors ; indeed, 
the degree of ionization of a mineral water may be measured, 
other conditions being equal, by its degree of conductivity 
(cf. p. 76). Such solutions are in a state of perpetual dis- 
solution and reconstruction, arc in fact "nascent." 

Osmotic Pressure or Tension. — " Dissolved substances 
behave like gases or vapours, spreading through the solvent 
with a certain measurable ' osmotic pressure,' which follows 
the same laws and has the same physical constants as in 
the case of gases and vapours, being, as in these cases, 
proportional to the molecular concentration — i.e. to the 
number of molecules dissolved in a litre of solution. 

" The osmotic pressure is measured by cryoscopy, 
i.e. by the lowering of the freezing-point of the solution in 
relation to that of pure water, this lowering being propor- 
tional to the molecular concentration. In solutions con- 



MIXERAL-WATER TREAT^IENT 233 

ducting electricity the freezing-point is always lower and the 
osmotic pressure greater than the molecular concentration 
would indicate, because of the dissociation of molecules into 
ions, which from the point of view of the osmotic pressure 
and freezing-point behave like independent molecules." ^ 

Mineral waters may be divided, according to their osmotic 
pressure,- into a hypertonic group, whose pressure is higher 
than that of the blood ; an isotonic group, whose pressure is 
about the same as that of the blood ; and a hypotonic group, 
whose pressure is distinctly lower than that of the blood. 

Were we dealing with an artificial solution of salts, 
these terms could be translated more simply into those of 
specific gravity ; but from what has been already said as to 
the com.parative richness in ions of some mineral waters, it will 
be seen that the osmotic pressure of a mineral water may be 
higher than that of a corresponding artificial solution of salts. 

The question of the osmotic pressure of a mineral water 
is evidently of some importance when the water is given 
internally. 

Colloidal State. — One possible consequence of the dis- 
sociation of mineral waters is the transformation of their 
metals into the colloidal state, i.e. into a state of ultra- 
microscopic emulsion. In such fine subdivision their total 
surface area is immensely increased, and with it their 
therapeutic potency. 

Radio-activity. — The possible influence of radio-activity 
has been already discussed (p. go). Apart from direct 
action in the body, it may act indirectly by maintaining in 
suspension colloids in ionized water and by resuspending 
precipitated particles, thereby '■ stabilizing " the composition 
of mineral water. In the waters of d'Enghien P. Daniel 
showed the presence of electrc-negative colloids susceptible 
to radium rays. In a partly precipitated solution they 
could be resuspended by yS rays, so that a mineral water 
would " die " on storage by loss of its radio-activity and by 

1 Leduc, " Ionic Medication," Med. Ann., 1912. 

2 Vide Appendix, p. 276. 



234 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

consequent permanent precipitation of its colloids (Arnozan 
and Lamarque). 

Effects of Drinking Plain Water. — Water constitutes of 
course the preponderating bulk of the living organism, 
and is the vehicle by which all nutriment is absorbed and 
all waste products are eliminated. 

As the loss of water from the body amounts to about 
100 oz. per diem, we must have that intake in some form. 
or another by the mouth to maintain equilibrium. The 
individual necessities vary of course with individual bulk 
and other factors, and the tolerance of the body, both in 
the matter of diminution of water supply and more especially 
of increase, is very considerable. 

Under normal conditions water entering the stomach 
is rapidly passed on to the duodenum, and is absorbed 
throughout the whole length of the intestine. The rapid 
ingestion of too large quantities will naturally tend to 
proptose the stomach, and thereby delay the passage of 
the liquid to the duodenum. At the same time it may 
exercise effects on the body temperature, and. what is more 
serious, reflex effects on the heart that have been occasionally 
fatal. It is therefore advisable to administer mineral water 
in small doses, 4 to 10 oz., and eschew the heroic draughts 
that once were popular. 

Absolutely pure distilled water is an irritant to the 
stomach on account of its tendency to upset osmotic 
equilibrium ' and, theoretically at any rate, a water isotonic 
with the blood should be least irritant. The physiological 
effects of drinking plain water will depend upon its tempera- 
ture and upon the condition of the stomach at the time 
in regard to presence of food and its stage of digestion. 

Cold Drinks. — Cold water acts on the mucous membrane 
of the stomach much as it does on the skin, and for a full 
account the reader is referred to the section on cold baths. 
There is a brief period of shock, followed by reaction and 

1 Cf. Amer. Jonrn. Phys. Therap., vol. i, No. 5 : also O. Liebrich, quoted 
by Weber, Climat. and Balneotherapy. 



MINERAL-WATER TREATMENT 235 

by certain reflex happenings. These effects achieve their 
maximum when the contrast of temperature is great, i.e. with 
very cold water, and, in so far as beneficial reaction is con- 
cerned, when the quantity is small. When large quantities 
of very cold water are taken at one dose the shock is great, 
the reaction is delayed, the body temperature is lowered, 
the pulse slowed, and, unless the shock is severe enough 
to depress the heart, the blood-pressure raised, and inhibitory 
influence is brought to bear upon glandular activity ; with 
small quantities, a momentary vaso-constriction is followed 
by the glow of reaction, and a rise of blood-pressure ; 
glandular activity is increased, and also muscular motility — 
a general tonic effect, in fact. This effect is passed on to 
the intestine, and bowel action is stimulated. 

Warm Drinks. — Drinks about the body temperature, 
the point of thermal indifference for the stomach, act much 
as do " indifferent baths " (vide p. 251) on the skin. There 
is no stimulation, the gastric juice is simply diluted. In 
large quantities, of course, warm water acts as a foreign 
body and may cause nausea and vomiting. 

Hot Drinks. — ^Very hot drinks in small quantity are 
stimulant just as are cold drinks (compare the action of 
hot baths of brief duration). Larger quantities (again 
compare hot baths of long duration) raise the body tempera- 
ture, quicken the pulse, and lower the blood-pressure. 

Condition oJ Stomach. — If the stomach is empty, the 
water acts as a flush, and is passed on more or less 
rapidly through the pylorus ; if food is in the stomach, 
a certain amount of dilution of gastric juice occurs, and the 
passage of the water to the duodenum is somewhat delayed. 

Excretory Effects. — All forms of water increase to some 
extent metabolism and the elimination of waste products. 
Cold water increases the catabolism of fats, and, as it also 
stimulates the action of the bowel, is preferable to hot 
in the treatment of obesity and chronic toxsemias. 

The Effects of Drinking Mineral Water.— These will be 
the effects of drinking plain water, hot or cold, as the 



236 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

case may be, plus the effect of dissolved salts and gases. 
The effect of these ingredients may be modified, as we have 
already seen, by the osmotic tension, ionization, and other 
qualities of the water. 

Baths : Effects of Plain Water on the Skin.^ Beyond a 
certain amount of maceraticjn of the outer layers of the 
cuticle, water of course is not absorbed by the skin. It 
is the various thermal and mechanical and, in the case of 
mineral water, the added chemical and possibly electrical 
stimuli, acting on the skin, which reflexly influence the 
whole organism ; and how potent those stimuli, and how 
far-reaching their reflex effects, is a phenomenon as surprising 
as it is fascinating to investigate. The potential importance 
of the skin as a modifier of metabolism is, I think, not fully 
appreciated, and certainly is not emphasized in the ordinary 
course of medical instruction. 

The Skin as an Organ. — Anyone can see, without further 
argument, the significance to the whole organism of any 
modifications of function of a great internal organ like the 
liver, but one is apt to forget that the skin is not merely 
a mechanical protective covering of the body, but a true 
glandular organ, and a huge one. 

It is spread out thinly, and so does not fit our mental 
conception of an organ ; but if we conceive it, with all its 
multitude of glands, ducts, capillaries, and nerve endings, 
as rolled or folded up into a compact mass and tucked away 
inside the body, we see what an important organ it really 
is. In addition to being a glandular organ, it is a special 
sense organ, enabling us to communicate with the outside 
world through the special end organs for touch, pressure, pain, 
and temperature sensation. How important this function 
is has been borne in upon us as never before by the multi- 
tudinous cases of ansesthesia from gunshot wound of nerve. 

Finally it is, apart from these functions, the principal 
factor in the heat-regulating mechanism of the body. 

Being designed essentially to react to external stimuli, 
instead of its organic potentialities being diminished by 



AIINERAL-WATER TREATMENT 237 

being spread out in a thin layer, these are really increased, 
and in equal measure are increased our facilities for influencing 
it directly by therapeutic stimuli. 

The dermal structures with which we are most 
concerned are the sweat glands, the nerve endings, and 
the capillaries. By influencing one or all of these three 
we can influence : 

(i) The body temperature and by it general metabolism. 

(ii) The amount of liquid withdrawn from the body by 
the skin and so the process of osmosis in the body generally, 
and the amount of work in the matter of excretion of 
liquid by the kidneys, lungs, and bowel. 

(iii) The excretion of toxic substances by the skin. 

(iv) The blood circulation in the skin, and, both reflexly 
and mechanically, circulation in internal structures, thereby 
influencing profoundly both the blood-pressure and meta- 
bolism generally. 

(v) The actual constitution of the blood, as will be 
shown later, not only as regards its plasma density, but as 
regards the number of erythrocytes and leucocytes and the 
amount of haemoglobin, an effect the importance of which 
on the body generally is obvious. 

(vi) The nerve endings, and reflexly every part of the 
nervous system, including the sympathetic, and incidentally 
the metabolism of almost any or every structure as desired. 

As already stated, no attempt will be made here to write a 
formal treatise on balneology, and the above phenomena will 
be dealt with as briefly as possible, and only discussed 
in so far as is necessary to give a grasp of the principles 
involved in the rational practice of hydro-therapeutics. 

(i) The Body Temperature. — Metabolism is retarded in 
cooled tissues, and, within certain limits, increased in warm 
ones. This is more especially the case when the cooling 
or warming is continuous ; with a rapid alternation of the 
two, other factors enter, as will be seen when dealing with 
reaction. Cold applied to the skin does not necessarily 
reduce the bodily temperature, for moderate cooling of 



238 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

the surface causes increased bodily heat production, more 
especially in the muscles, and this heat production takes 
place principally at the expense of the non-nitrogenous 
substances. 

As moderate heating of the skin acts in the converse 
manner and stimulates nitrogenous catabolism, we have a 
definite, if limited, command over both nitrogenous and 
hydrocarbon and carbohydrate metabolism. 

The stimulating effect on heat production of cold applied 
to the skin is a point of practical importance in the treatment 
of hyperpyrexia. The cooling effect of mere cold sponging 
in fever is greatly nullified by increased heat production 
and by the defensive mechanism of the dermal vessels, 
which contract, and so diminish the amount of blood exposed 
to cooling. By the employment of alternate sponging and 
skin friction the latter impediment is removed. The skin 
is made rosy, more blood is brought to the surface, the 
veins are emptied, and, as the circulation is made more 
brisk, more blood is cooled. 

Practically we can cool or heat the tissues beyond the 
skin-layer, either locally, as by a douche or local vapour 
or hot-air bath, or generally, in a complete-immersion bath 
of water, vapour, or air ; or we can warm them still more 
deeply by the more penetrating radiant-heat rays, or by 
certain electrical currents (diathermy). 

It is so well recognized that the heat-regulating mechanism 
of the body does not fail us under ordinary circumstances 
that we at once look for trouble if we find the body tempera- 
ture raised even one degree beyond the diurnal variation. 
Immersed in water the case is quite different ; partly from 
the conducting power of water and partly from the putting 
out of action of the chief defences of the heat-regulating 
mechanism, a condition of artificial fever is brought about 
after a very few minutes of immersion to the neck in a 
hot bath. 

With a cold bath, reduction of the body temperature is 
a much less rapid process. The stimulus of cold induces 



MINERAL-WATER TREATMENT 239 

increased heat production, and the skin anaemia reduces 
the loss of heat by conduction from the skin. The degree 
of fever caused by immersion in a hot bath depends not 
only on the temperature of the bath and the length of the 
immersion, but varies considerably with the individual. 
For instance, I took the mouth temperature of twenty 
chronic arthritic patients before and during a bath. The 
patients were immersed in the saftie large bath (Public 
Priest) up to the neck, the temperature of the bath being 
maintained throughout at its usual level of 104° F. Before 
the bath the records were all from 98° to 98-8° F. After 
ten minutes' immersion, the lowest temperature recorded 
was 99° F., the highest (in two cases) ioi-6° F. I could 
discover no particular reason at the time to account for 
one man having a temperature nearly 3° higher than another, 
though now, on looking back, it has occurred to me that 
it might be due to " intensive action " on local pathological 
material.^ One sees so frequently during the progress 
of a course of hot baths, and especially in the early stages 
of the course, an exacerbation of local symptoms in arthritic 
cases, due to this intensive action, that one comes to regard 
this phase as normal. Indeed, it is a maxim amongst 
patients at a spa that " 3'ou must get worse before you 
get better." In a subsequent experiment similar results 
were obtained, but the highest pyrexia, again ioi-6° F., 
occurred in a man whose temperature before the bath 
was already somew^hat raised, 99-6° F. 

Leonard Hill and Martin Flack,- experimenting on them- 
selves and on students with immersion baths at 105° to 110° F., 
found the bod}' temperature after twenty minutes' immersion 
to be raised to 102° to 104° F. As a result, in addition 
to the changes noted here of cutaneous hyperaemia, lowered 
blood- pressure, and rapid pulse, they found that a condition 
of hyperpnoea ensued, and as a consequence the partial 
pressure of carbonic acid in the alveolar air was lowered 

1 'Cf. Fortescue Fox, Medical Hydrology. 
- Proc. Physiol. Soc. 



240 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

from the normal 5 or 6 per cent, to 3 or 4 per cent., so that 
the body was not only cleansed of carbonic acid, but well 
oxygenated. An artificial increase oi the body temperature 
causes loss of weight. Part of this loss may be due to 
profuse sweating, but part is due, as we have already noted, 
to increased nitrogenous catabolism. 

It is evident, then, that a raised bodily temperature,' 
such as we may get after immersion in a hot bath, is 
responsible for profound alterations of metabolism. 

Another effect of artificial pyrexia is that the defensive 
mechanism of the body against microbic and toxic infection 
is also strengthened. Thus Roily and Meltzer - found that 
phagocytic activity reached its maximum at about 104° F., 
declining again as the temperature rose to 1067° F. Also, 
in rabbits kept for periods of from four to twenty days in a 
state of artificial pyrexia, the production of anti-toxins 
and agglutinins was accelerated, while the animals remained 
well and healthy, and no signs were found of the visceral 
parenchymatous changes so common in ordinary pyrexia. 

It has been suggested that the natural febrile reaction 
consequent on microbic infection is part of the defensive 
mechanism of the body, the higli temperature having an 
inhibiting effect on the growth of some organisms. This 
theory was based chiefly on the experiments of Pipping 
on the effect of fever-level temperatures on the growth 
of pneumococci in broth. Roily and Meltzer, however, 
pointed out how altered were the conditions when the 
organisms actually infected the body, and it would rather 
seem that a moderate general pyrexia, such, for instance, 
as results from a hot bath, is only indirectly bactericidal 
by means of its already noted stimulant action on the 
defensive mechanism of the body. 

The possibility of another and more direct result of the 

1 Practically we can increase bodily heat loss 70 per cent, or decrease 
it 90 per cent, by baths. Water containing weak chemical irritants, 
e.g. Priest Bath, facilitates heat loss if applied below the body temperature. 

2 Proc. Physiol. Soc, vide B.M.J., May 22, 1909- 



MIXERAL-WATER TREAT^IENT 241 

artificial heating of the tissues has, however, to be considered. 
In the case of the extreme localized hyperpyrexia induced 
by a local hot-air bath, e.g. to the knee at 400° to 500° F., 
or by a local vapour bath at 120° to 130° F., or by diathermy, 
we m.av very conceivably get temperatures that would 
materially affect local bacterial growth in those cases, 
e.g. some gonorrhceal ones, in which there is actual joint 
invasion. 

I am not aware of any reliable records of the temperature 
of the interior of living tissues under such conditions, but 
it is probable that it must be raised considerably, and it 
may possibly be so far raised as to be germicidal, either 
directly, or, indirectly, by so modifying the culture medium 
of the patient's tissues as to make it inimical to the growth 
of micro-organisms. 

Thus the gonococcus is killed in cultures by an exposure 
of ten minutes to a temperature of 111° F., or immediately 
by a temperature of 113° F., though there is reason to believe 
that somewhat higher temperatures can be withstood b}^ 
the coccus within the tissues than when outside the body. 

(ii) Withdrawal of Liquid from the Body. — Liquid is removed 
from the body chiefly by means of the kidneys, the bowels, 
the skin, and the respiratory organs ; and by influencing the 
skin by means of hot or cold baths we can modify materially 
the relative proportion excreted by these various channels. 
The total amount of liquid lost varies considerably with 
the individual, and in the same individual the relative 
proportion passed by each channel varies largely with 
the temperature of his skin environment. Thus, by vary- 
ing this temperature by means of baths, we can throw 
proportionately more work on the sweat glands or the 
kidney's, and. as we shall see later, the liquid loss from both 
lungs and bowel can also be influenced by the same methods. 

As a general rule, however, our object is to throw more 
work on to the skin and relieve the work of the kidneys. 

The promotion of free sweating is one of the most ancient 
and universal aims of hydro- therapeutics. Of extreme value, 
16 



242 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

it assumes perhaps an exaggerated importance in the 
pubhc mind by its very simplicity and apparent directness 
of method, where much of treatment is intangible and indirect. 

A cold bath inhibits the action of the sweat glands and 
increases the liquid excretion by the three other channels. 
A hot-water bath or hot-air bath stimulates the sweat 
glands as part of the defensive armour of the heat-regu- 
lating mechanism, though in the former case almost use- 
lessly. In addition, a bath containing irritating ingredients, 
such as the sulphuric-acid baths of Rotorua, by causing 
active hypersemia of the skin, stimulates the glands yet 
more, so that a much more copious secretion of sweat 
takes place after a bath of hot " Priest " water than after 
one of plain liot water. The sweating, of course, begins 
in the bath, and is encouraged, if necessary, by a hot- 
pack afterwards. Still more copious sweating ensues 
after a vapour bath, and reaches its acme, as might be 
expected, after a bath in which the steam is mingled with 
hot sulphurous acid fumes, as in the sulphur-vapour bath 
at Rotorua. 

With hot-air baths we get the same results, which again 
appear to be increased when the stimulus of certain light 
rays is added, as in the electric-light bath. 

(iii) Excretion of Toxic Substances by the Skin.^ — The skin 
is a vicarious kidney. The sweat, in addition to water 
and certain salts, contains fatty acids, carbonic acid gas, 
glycogen, and certain obscure toxins and micro-organisms, 
and may also contain appreciable and even large amounts 
of purin bodies, including uric acid. 

Thus, hyperidrosis may not only relieve the work of the 
kidneys, but may even serve to excrete substances that 
otherwise would be locked up permanently in the system.^ 

On the other hand, Beneke has shown that excessive 
sweating, without a corresponding intake of water, may so 
concentrate the urine that on the whole a diminution of 

1 Gout is a disease characterized by retention rather than by over- 
production of uric acid. 



MINERAL-WATER TREATMENT 243 

the total excretion of nitrogenous substances results, an 
observation that shows the necessity of drinking the waters 
when taking a course of thermal baths. 

(iv) The Blood Circulation of the Skin, and of Internal 
Structures. — A short application of either heat or cold acts 
on the skin as a stimulus and causes temporary cutaneous 
anaemia, from vaso-constriction of arterioles principally, 
but also from increased tone of the intervascular ^ tissues, 
and from contraction of the endothelial lining cells of 
capillaries. This stage is succeeded by one of reaction 
and consequent hyperaemia. The primary stage is pro- 
portionate directly to the contrast of temperature between 
the skin and the medium, and, within certain severe limits, to 
the duration of the stimulus. Thus, the maximum beneficial 
effect will be obtained with a brief, very hot, or very cold 
application. 

Further consideration of this subject will be given under 
the heading of cold and hot baths : suffice it here that, 
generally speaking, the amount of blood circulating in 
deep structures will be in inverse ratio to that circulating 
in the skin. 

(v) Changes in Blood-content. — Stimulation of the skin of 
sufficient intensity to cause active dermal hypersemia 
(cf. p. 250) will cause an alteration in the blood-count, 
and this alteration may be not only local in the area stimu- 
lated, but general and in distant parts that have not been 
stimulated directly. These phenomena were first described 
by. Winternitz ' as a result of the study of the effects of 
cold baths, and his observations were confirmed by a 
multitude of observers.' Bearing in mind that a brief 

1 The diagonally arranged involuntary muscle bundles and yellow 
elastic fibres of the true skin. 

2 Winternitz, Blatter fur klinische Hydrotherapie, 1893 ; also his article 
in Cohen's System of Physiologic Therapeutics. 

=» Rovighi, Internat. Congress, Rome (quoted by Baruch) ; Strasser, 
Blatter fiir klinische Hydrotherapie, 1893 ." Magranti, Giornale delta Reale 
Acad., October 1895. For a full discussion of the subject see Baruch, 
:Iydrotherapy. 



244 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

very hot bath has much the same effect on the circulation 
as a brief cold one, it might be anticipated that similar 
alterations would be found in the blood-count, and this 
was found to be the case by Knoepfelmacher.^ On the 
same line of reasoning, finding that the reactive phase 
of a hot acid sulphur bath was not only very pronounced, 
but very prolonged, I examined the blood-content in bathers 
taking the Priest Bath, and found, even after comparatively 
long immersions, the same alterations of blood-count as 
occur after a cold bath (cf. p. 79). 

After a cold bath, and more especially when skin reaction 
is encouraged b}' stimulating measures such as friction, 
douches, and vigorous muscular exercise, a blood-count 
will show a decided increase of both red and white corpuscles 
in the cutaneous blood, the increase lasting about two hours. 
The increase will be found whether the blood be taken 
from a part that has been immersed, say the finger, or 
from a part purposely untouched, say the ear. On the other 
hand, after a hot bath of moderately prolonged duration, 
there is a distinct decrease of both red and white corpuscles. 

It is obvious that such a sudden increase of corpuscles — 
the results may be seen within ten minutes — could not be 
due to a fresh formation of cells. The suggestion has been 
made that these results may be due to the contraction of 
the surrounding tissues forcing the blood-plasma out of the 
capillaries, and leaving some of the corpuscles stranded. 
This, however, would not explain the alteration in distant 
parts, and Winternitz explained the phenomenon as being 
due to corpuscles swept out of internal organs, where the 
blood was in a condition of comparative stasis, into the 
brisked general circulation. This view was confirmed 
by a negative experiment of Breitenstein's, who showed 
that when a rabbit was exposed to heat there was the same 
diminution of corpuscles in the cutaneous blood as is seen 
after a warm bath in man, with a simultaneous increase 
of corpuscles in the liver blood. 

1 Knoepfelmacher, Wiener klinische Rundeschmi, 1894. 



.AIINERAL-WATER TREATMENT 245 

(vi) General Metabolism. — From the preceding para- 
graphs it is obvious that, by means of the skin, we can 
influence general metabolism. We can increase the intake 
of oxygen and the output of carbonic acid, we can control, 
to a limited but definite degree, the catabolism of both 
nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous components of the organism 
and assist excretion of waste products, and we can even 
to a very definite extent affect the composition of the 
blood. 

Correlated Areas. — Moreover, in addition to our power 
of affecting the metabolism of the body as a whole by means 
of baths, we can, by local applications, for instance, douches, 
and especially by such potent stimuli as the alternate 
use of hot and cold water in the Scotch douche, exercise 
a selective measure, and so to a greater or less degree affect 
the metabolism of almost any desired part of the body, 
whether that part be a joint or an organ deep-seated in the 
trunk. 

Certain skin areas have been determined which are 
correlated reflexly with internal organs, and stimulation 
of these areas will affect reflexly the corresponding organs 
by altering their blood-supply for the time being. Thus, 
stimulation applied to the lower dorsal spinal area will in- 
fluence both the circulation and the motility of the stomach ; 
over the nates, the pelvic viscera; over Scarpa's triangle, 
the genital organs. 

We owe much of our knowledge of the nervous correlation 
of the viscera with certain definite skin areas to the re- 
searches of Head.' The posterior spinal roots contain 
sensory fibres for both the skin and the viscera. If a 
spinal segment supplies sensory fibres to a viscus and also 
to a certain skin area, that area becomes hyper-alggesic in 
disease of the viscus. It also exhibits increased excita- 
bility to heat and cold, and the reflexes excited by its stimu- 
lation are exaggerated, so that we may reasonably suppose 

1 Head, Brain, vols, xvi, xvii, and xix ; see also Mackenzie, Med. 
Chron., August 1892, and Ross, Brain, January 1888. 



246 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

that we have more power by reflex stimulation thera- 
peutically to influence a diseased than a healthy organ. 
This observation is probably the explanation of the " in- 
tensive action" of baths in dispersing unhealthy deposits 
insisted on by Fortescue Fox/ by which is meant that the 
increased nitrogenous catabolism induced by hot baths 
affects pathological more than normal tissues. 

Again, pain originating in the viscus may be referred to 
the corresponding skin area, so that, conversely, a soothing 
of the pain in the skin area, either by counter-irritants or 
by such means as warm fomentations or massage, may 
relieve a deep-seated pain. The explanation of the referred 
skin pain may be either an overflow of the irritation from 
the visceral fibres through the spinal root to the skin 
fibres radiating from the same root, or to a confusion of 
the sense of localization in the higher centres. Thus it is 
supposed that each peripheral area is represented in the 
brain ; that the brain receives frequent sensations from 
the skin area as against infrequent sensations from the 
viscus ; and that, consequently, all sensations coming to 
this particular cerebral centre are apt to be associated rather 
with the skin than the viscus (cf. Stewart, Physiology). 

In regard to the metabolism of joints, nerves, and muscles, 
the same truth was long ago adumbrated by Hilton in 
his famous aphorism that " the same trunks of nerves 
whose branches supply the groups of muscles moving a 
joint furnish also a distribution of nerves to the skin 
over the insertions of the same muscles ; and . . . the 
interior of the joint receives its nerves from the same 
source." 

We have now seen how, by stimulation of the skin, we 
can affect the metabolism either of the body generally 
or of some selected portion locally, and in the light of this 
knowledge can consider the physiological effects of a cold 
bath and of a hot bath, and finally, taking into account 
the superadded factors of mineral water, such as saline 

1 Fortescue Fox, Medical Hydrology, 19 13. 



MINERAL-WATER TREATMENT 247 

contents, ionization, etc., we can see how mineral- water 
baths may have a specific action of their own. 

Effects of a Bath of Plain Watsr. — The effects of a 
bath are due to (i) the medium; (2) the temperature of 
the medium; (3) the physical pressure. 

1. The Medium. — The essential characteristics of water 
applied as a bath are {a) it is a good conductor of heat ; 
{h) it is a bland, non- irritating medium which supports the 
body comfortably ; (c) it mechanically disturbs the body 
heat-regulating mechanism. 

{a) The rapid conduction of heat from the skin to the 
water or from the water to the skin enables all the phenomena 
considered below under the head of temperature to be 
brought about quickly and effectually. 

[h) WTien used within moderate ranges of temperature 
near the indifferent point (vide infra), by preventing the 
access of the numerous tactile stimuli subconsciously 
felt under normal conditions of clothed life, water is a 
sedative, and as such has obvious valuable uses. Again, 
by supporting the limbs it mechanically eases painful 
joints, or by supporting the body enables voluntary use 
to be made of paresed limbs, which otherwise would be 
impossible. 

{c) By preventing evaporation from the skin, a water 
bath upsets the automatic heat-regulating mechanism 
of the body. Except in conditions of collapse or hyper- 
pyrexia, where this attribute may be employed purposely, 
this is generally a disadvantage, and a danger to be guarded 
against when giving baths therapeutically. 

2. The Temperature. — This, of course, is the all-important 
factor. The skin stimulus of a bath is the contrast between 
the temperature of the water and that of the skin of the 
bather rather than that of his body temperature, and baths 
are classified therefore in relation to the skin temperature, 
a very movable figure, as hot, warm, tepid, cold. The 
temperature of the covered skin averages about 88° F., 
but that of the uncovered parts is much less. The air im- 



248 TH1=: HOT SPRINGS OF NI-AV ZEALAND 

prisoned between the clothing and the skin averages about 
89° F., and the body exposed to air at this temperature 
neither loses nor gains heat from its environment. Still air 
at this temperature feels to the skin of a resting individual 
neither hot nor cold, and this point of thermal indifference 
for air is variably placed at from 85° F. to 90° F. 

Water conducting more freely than air, its indifferent 
temperature point is somewhat higher, 93° F. or 94° F. 
Baths may be classified, then, as tepid, or subthermal, 
at or near the indifferent temperature ; cold below that 
range ; and hot above it. 

Cold Bath. — The first effect of a cold bath is a brisk 
stimulus or shock to the sensory end-organs in the skin, 
conveyed thence to the central nervous system, and followed 
by a response which is carried largely by the sympathetic 
nerves. This first stage is marked more especially by 
vaso-motor action in tlie skin, with all the secondary 
phenomena which are necessary corollaries of that action. 
Thus, with the vessels of the skin contracted, there is 
internal hypcraemia, though not sufficient to prevent a 
rise of blood-pressure. 

This stage is followed by the all-important one of reaction, 
and it is on this stage that the benefits of a cold bath depend. 
The vaso-motor impulse passes off, the cutaneous vessels 
dilate, the skin becomes pink, the temporarily quickened 
pulse becomes slowed and strengthened, so that the blood- 
pressure remains raised, the muscle tone is improved, 
and there is a general sense of hien Hre. This sensation 
is largely due to the improved circulation, not only in the 
periphery but in the central nervous system, but may 
in part be due to direct stimulation of that central system. 
It is in this stage that we begin to find manifested those 
changes in the blood-content already noted. These two 
stages represent the phase of stimulation of the heat- 
regulating centre. 

Should the bath be prolonged beyond a certain period, 
which varies both with the health and age of the individual 



MINERAL-WATER TREATMENT 249 

and the temperature of the water, the third stage, that 
of depression, ensues. In this stage the heat-regulating 
mechanism is fatigued and begins to fail, and heat loss 
begins to exceed heat production. It passes insensibly into 
the fourth, or algid stage, in which, that mechanism having 
entirely broken down, the body rapidly approaches the 
temperature of the surrounding medium, and ends in 
collapse and death. 

It is our object, then, in all cold applications to ensure 
the second stage and to prevent the development of the 
third. 

Hot Bath. — In a hot bath there are the same stages as 
in the cold bath, but they are less sharply defined and tend 
to merge more insensibly into one another. All equally 
depend on a stimulus to the heat-regulating centre, though, 
in the case of the hot bath, the response is in the direction 
of diminished instead of increased heat production, and 
the organism makes unsuccessful efforts to encourage 
heat loss instead of, as in the case of cold baths, successful 
efforts to diminish it. 

The first stage of vaso-constriction and tonicity is rapidly 
succeeded by the second of vaso-relaxation, and whereas 
the second stage of a cold bath is a generally tonic condition, 
that of the hot bath is one of relaxation and debility. In 
the hot bath we endeavour to arrest treatment at the first 
stage if we desire tonic effects, and in the second stage 
if we wish to relieve pain and stiffness. As we have seen 
(p. 82), it is the faculty of prolonging the tonic effects of the 
first stage well into the second which constitutes the especial 
merit of the hot acid waters of Rotorua. 

The Reaction of Active Hsrereemia. — In the second stage 
of a hot bath the skin is hyperaemic, the veins are full, and 
the parts relaxed ; the appearance, however, is quite 
different from the pink glow seen in the second stage of 
a cold bath. We have seen, too, that the blood-content 
is also quite different in the two conditions. The one 
might be described as a mild poultice effect, the other 



250 TIIK TIOT Sl'KlXf'.S OF Xl'AV ZEALAXI) 

as a mild mustard-plaster effect ; the former is a condition 
of passive hyperaemia due to withdrawal of vaso-motor 
influence, the other has been described as one of active 
hypersemia, and is not easily explained. 

There has been a good deal of scepticism about the 
possibility of an active hypersemia. It is pointed out that 
arteries dilate as an atonic measure from relaxation of vaso- 
motor influence ; how is it possible for such a relaxation 
to be compatible with a tonic hyperaemia of the skin ? 

There are several possible factors. In the first place, stimu- 
lation of the longitudinal ' muscular fibres of the arteries 
would dilate the vessels actively, while contraction of the 
circular fibres would narrow their lumen. As longitudinal 
fibres are found in the larger vessels only, both in arteries 
and veins, this is probably a minor factor. More important 
is the action of the capillaries. These have no muscular 
coat, and their alteration in lumen is effected by the 
amoeboid-like movements of their endothelial lining cells. 
They are, however, supported and enmeshed by a close 
network of unstriped muscle and yellow elastic tissue 
fibres, supplying the function of an elastic and muscular 
coat. These muscular fibres, as is muscle elsewhere, are 
not in a state of placid continuous rest broken by brief 
periods of active contraction, but are in a state of rhythmic 
rest. or. if it be preferred, of rhythmic contraction. 

Skin-heart Function. — In this way they cause a slow 
pulsation of the blood in the capillaries, not synchronous 
with that of the heart, and aid the circulation. They act 
in fact much as the multiple hearts of the frog, and the 
phenomenon was termed by Woods Hutchinson ' the " skin 
heart." 

This rhythmic contraction of the capillaries is readily 
seen in the invertebrates, but may also be observed in the 

1 Exner, Acad, of Sciences, Vienna, 1877, pointed out the possibility 
of this by showing how the lumen of a stretched rubber tube was increased 
when its ends were approximated. 

2 Boston Med. and Surg. Jouru.. November 1897. 



MIXERAL-WATER TREATMENT 251 

web of the frog's foot, and, in the mammalia, in the bat's 
wing and rabbit's ear. Remembering that in man some 
10,000 square feet of cutaneous capillaries, with a capacity 
of 30 per cent, of the body blood, are involved, it is easy 
to see how powerful is the influence of this quasi-reptilial 
skin heart. 

Cold water applied to the skin stimulates the contraction 
of the skin muscles through their intrinsic ganglia, powerfully 
emptj'ing the capillaries by compression — the first stage 
of the cold bath. Then follows a relaxation of the muscles, 
the capillaries are dilated and fill with arterial blood. The 
limited application of cold is, however, a powerful stimulus 
to muscle, and the " skin heart " beats again with renewed 
vigour. At the same time the central heart has also been 
stimulated by the cold bath, and the blood-pressure rises 
and enhances the effect of the peripheral hearts. 

One other factor is also at work. Bier ^ maintained, and 
his experiments were confirmed by those of Ritter, that 
tissues made anaemic by constriction, when the constriction 
was removed and the blood allowed access again, exercised 
a selective action, so that arterial blood alone filled the 
area affected and venous blood was excluded. 

In the case of our cutaneous capillaries they have been 
powerfully squeezed, emptied, and refilled. The inference 
is that selective action would be exhibited. 

The case of deep massage is closely analogous, and it 
may well be that some of the muscle-generative power 
both of massage and of voluntary muscular contraction 
may be due to this cause. 

An active hyperaemia, then, is a more rapid circulation 
of arterial blood through rhythmically pulsating capillaries. 

The Tepid Bath at tiie Indifierent Temperature. — Finally, 
there is the bath at the " indifferent temperature," in which 
there is no appreciable contrast between the temperature 
of the skin of the bather and that of the bath, in which there 

1 For a full discussion of the subject of active hyperaemia see Baruch, 
Hydrotherapy. 



252 THE HOT SPR1N(;S OF NHW ZEALAND 

is no call on the heat-regulating centre, and consequently 
neither stimulation nor depression. The absence of stimu- 
lation all would admit, the absence of depression on long 
immersion is not so generally recognized, yet in some of the 
Swiss resorts patients remain for many hours in the water 
without serious depression, and thirty years ago I remember 
in Guy's Hospital seeing a patient kept continuously in a 
bath for several days and nights on account of unmanage- 
able bed-sores, consequent on pyaemia, and to his manifest 
comfort. 

The bland medium, which evenly supports the body, 
acts as a protective envelope, and shuts off the numberless 
tactile sensations which normally, though subconsciously, 
affect the central nervous system. Such a bath is therefore 
a sedative, comparable to a quiet sick chamber, and as 
such has its obvious uses. 

The following summary shows in tabular form the main 
physiological effects of hot and cold baths : 



I 



COLD BATH 
First Stage — Prolonged 
Preliminary shock great. 



2. Skin anccmia from vaso-con- 

striction of surface vessels. 

3. Action of sweat and sebaceous 

glands checked. 



in- 



5- 
6. 



7- 
8. 



10. 



Arterial blood-pressure 
creased. 

Pulse accelerated. 

Respiration deepened and ac- 
celerated. 

Heat production increased. 

Muscle tone increased. 

Involuntary muscular contrac- 
tions — shivering. 

Pain and stiffness in general 
increased; causalgiageneralh' 
diminished. 



HOT BATH 
First Stage — Brief 

1 . Preliminary shock moderate 

except with very high tem- 
perature. 

2. Vaso-constrictive skin anaemia 

brief. 

3. (?) Inhibition of sweat- and 

sebaceous-gland action brief 
only. 

4. Arterial blood-pressure in- 

creased. 

5. Pulse accelerated. 

6. Respiration accelerated. 

7. Heat production diminished. 

8. Muscle tone increased. 

9. No shivering. 

10. Pain and stiffness relieved, but 
causalgia generally increased. 
This feature becomes more 
marked as the first is merged 
in the second stage. 



MINERAL-WATER TREATMENT 



253 



Second Stage- 



-hnportant and pro- 
longed : Stage of Reaction, or of 
Active HypercBmia. 



Second Stage — important and pro- 
longed : Stage of Reaction or Passive 
Hyper cBmia. 



1. Vaso-constriction removed, 

active hyperaemia of skin 
(mustard-plaster effect). 

2. Sweat and sebaceous glands 

inactive. 

3. Pulse slowed and strengthened. 

4. Arterial pressure raised. 

5. Heat production increased very 

greatly. 

6. Shivering passes off ; sensation 

of warmth in the skin. 

7. Increased catabolism of fats 

more especially. 

8. 1 Increased quantity of urine, 

and somewhat of urea. 
Increased depth of respiration. 



9- 



10. 



II. 

12. 



13- 
14- 



Increased intake of oxygen and 
output of carbonic acid. 

Body temperature constant. 

Red and white blood corpuscles 
in dermal circulation in- 
creased in number. 

Muscle tone increased. 

General tonic effect on all 
parts of body, including ner- 
vous system. 



13 
14 



1. Vaso-constriction removed, pas- 

sive hyperaemia of skin (poul- 
tice effect), very doubtful 
transitory active hypera;mia. 

2. Sweat and sebaceous glands 

active. 

3. Pulse more rapid. 

4. Arterial pressure falling, except 

possibly in very hot baths. 

5. Heat production diminished. 

6. Skin is actually warmed. 

7. Increased catabolism of both 

fats and nitrogenous tissues. 

8. 1 Urea output increased, urine 

rather diminished. 

9. Increased rapidity of respira- 

• tion. 

10. Increased intake of oxygen and 

output of carbonic acid. 

11. Body temperature rises. 

12. Red and white corpuscles 

in dermal circulation dim- 
inished in number. 

Muscle tone diminished. 

Languor, debility, and loss 
of tone. 



Third Stage — Fatigue of Nerve 
Centres 



Tliird Stage — Fatigue of Nerve 
Centres 



1. Skin anaemic. 

2. Increased metabolism of both 

proteins and fats. 

3. Blood-pressure falls slowly. 

4. Body temperature falls slowly. 

5. Muscular relaxation slowly de- 

velops. 



1. Skin congested. 

2. Very great increase in meta- 

bolism of proteins and fats. 

3. Blood-pressure falls rapidly. 

4. Body temperature rises rapidly. 

5. Muscular relaxation, including 

heartmuscle, rapidly develops. 



1 Not confined to one stage, but placed here for convenience. 



254 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Fourth Stage Fourth Stage 

1. Vaso-motor paralysis, venous i. Vaso-motor paralysis, venous 

and capillary stasis. and capillary stasis. 

2. Rapid fall of body temperature. 2. Rapid rise of body temperature. 

3. Rapid fall of blood-pressure. 3. Rapid fall of blood-pressure. 

4. Collapse. 4. Muscular, including heart, para- 

lysis. 

3. TJic Physical Pressure. — In a bath of four feet or more 
in depth, there is very definite direct pressure on the 
capillary and venous circulation of the lower extremities. 
Of more practical importance is precordial pressure, though 
this is of only a few inches of water. Many patients have 
alarming palpitation if the water of a hot bath rises above 
the nipple line, though this is probably rather a reflex 
phenomenon than one due directly to pressure. 

In the various douches, including the underwater douche, 
use is made of local direct pressure effects as wtII as of 
reflex thermal stimulation. 

Mineral-water Baths. We have now considered, in 
fairly full detail, the physiological effects on the organism 
of baths of hot and of cold plain water. A mineral-water 
bath wdll of course have these same effects plus an}' addi- 
tional effects that may be caused by its specific qualities. 
As we have already seen, the known possible added factors 
are, in addition to or comprised in the quality of freshness, 
which may or may not be present, ionization, osmotic 
tension, radio-activity, and the presence of gases, salts, 
or acids. 

As to what, if any, may be the action of the first three 
factors we are yet imperfectly informed and the whole 
matter is still siib judice, but in regard to gases, salts, 
and acids there can be no question whatever of their potent 
action on the skin. 

Gases. — Many gases are contained in mineral waters, 
either dissolved or free, but the most important are car- 
bonic acid, sulphuretted hydrogen, and perhaps sulphurous 
acid. 



MTNERAL-WATER TREATMENT 255 

Carbonic acid gas is particularly common in mineral 
waters, as it may be found both in volcanic and non-volcanic 
springs, and is more especially abundant in the calcareous 
springs of limestone regions. It is not absorbed by the 
vessels of the skin, but acts as a direct stimulant to unstriped 
muscle, and so to the peripheral circulation by promoting 
" active " hyperaemia. This " skin-heart " function is used 
therapeutically to lessen the work of the central heart and 
is the raison d'etre of the Nauheim baths. In addition, the 
indifferent temperature point of carbonic acid being only 
75°, a comparatively cool effervescing bath feels warm 
(cf. Old Priest Bath, Rotorua, p. 77). As most springs 
containing much carbonic acid are comparatively cool, this 
is an important practical point. 

Sulphuretted hydrogen is important, not so much for 
its physical effect, for it is less stimulating to the skin 
than carbonic acid, as because it is probably to some 
extent absorbed. On the whole, it is rather disadvan- 
tageous in a bath in any quantity, as it is also necessarily 
inhaled. 

Sulphurous acid is stimulating to the skin in the same 
way as carbonic acid, but it too is liable to be inhaled. 
It is the presence of these two sulphurous gases in the 
waters of Rotorua which constitutes the chief drawback 
of the natural baths, and makes them impossible for some 
patients. 

Salts. — No one can doubt the greater stimulating property 
of, say, sea- water as compared with fresh water, and indeed 
the sea constitutes the greatest body of mineral water 
in the world, and is the prototype of all saline springs. 
Salt tends to promote the reaction of stage two of a bath 
(cf. p. 253), and most definitely to prolong it. 

Most of the salts of mineral waters have more or less 
of this same action on the skin, but of course, in the weak 
hypotonic waters, the action is very slight. 

Acids. — These, while uncommon ingredients of mineral 
waters generally, are very important factors in the Rotorua 



256 TTIK TTOT SPRTXGS Ol- XKW ZEALAND 

waters. Their stimulating action on the skin circulation 
is very pronounced indeed, much more so than that of salt. 
They, like salt, favour the reaction of stage two (cf. p. 253), 
and, even more than salt, they prolong it. The changes 
in the blood-content thereby induced are dealt with on 
page 79 under the head of Priest Waters. 



I 



J 



CHAPTER XVII 

ACCESSORY PHYSICAL TREATMENT 

Under this heading come massage, electrical treatment, 
and remedial exercises, and both our appreciation of the 
benefits of these methods and our skill in their utilization 
have increased enormously during the last few years. In 
the early stages of the war multitudes of wounded men 
quitted the surgical hospitals, their actual wounds healed, 
and the primary ravages of shot and shell repaired, as far 
as surgical aid could repair them. Officially they were 
" convalescent," but their condition was often pitiable 
and their disabilities apparently hopeless. To meet this 
emergency all the resources of physical treatment were 
called into play. The existing centres of treatment, and 
amongst them Rotorua, rose to the occasion, and results 
that appeared at that time almost miraculous were obtained. 
Soon on every side, in every country, fresh hospitals 
for physical treatment sprang up, fresh staffs of masseurs 
were trained, and by the end of the war not only had 
physio- therapeutics received full recognition, but it was 
in danger of suffering from over-popularity. 

As a result of the immense impetus thus given to 
physical treatment, the whole subject is on a different plane 
from that existing in 1914. There are infinitely more 
medical men with a practical knowledge of the subject, 
there are whole hosts of trained masseurs, masseuses, 
and electricians, and, in addition, our methods of applica- 
tion of treatment have been improved. The results of 
this enormous gain of experience remain to benefit not 
17 257 



258 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

only the wounded in war, but the even greater array of 
the wounded in the battle of life. 

Massage.— This constitutes one of the most important— 
perhaps the most important— of forms of accessory treatment. 
In the Government spas true massage is given by prescrip- 
tion, and under medical direction only, thus eliminating 
that element of quackery that has for so many years been 
the bane of massage. 

This is no place for a description of the technique of 
massage, for which the reader is referred to one of the many 
textbooks on the subject, but the following paragraphs, 
condensed from the admirable account of Kellogg, give 
a brief summary of its physiological action and effects. 

The effects of massage are mechanical, as when the hand 
of the operator promotes the movements of blood and 
lymph ; reflex, in which distant effects are set up by 
stimulation of the cerebro-spinal or sympathetic nerve- 
endings ; and metabolic, really a corollary of the other 

two. 

Effects on the Nervous System. — Stimulant or sedative 
effects may be obtained as desired by varying the forms of 
manipulation. 

Effects on the Muscular System. — Massage greatly in- 
creases the blood-supply of a muscle,' thereby affecting its 
nutrition, and indirectly affecting the general circulation. 
Metabolism and heat production are greatly stimulated. 

Effects on the Bones and Joints. — Increased blood-supply 
to a muscle increases the supply to a bone immediately 
underlying it, favourably influencing its nutrition, together 
with that of the cartilages, ligaments, and other joint struc- 
tures. At the same time there is increased circulation 
through the red marrow, the importance of which to the 
blood is obvious. 

Effects on the Circulation. — The current through veins 
and lymphatics is hastened, with obvious direct effects 

1 As already pointed out, the "selective action" for arterial blood 
described by Bier may probabl}^ be a factor. 



ACCESSORY PHYSICAL TREATMENT 259 

on the local metabolism and with secondary effects on the 
general circulation and heart's action, and indeed on the 
body generally.^ 

Exactly the same effects of hsematcgenesis are seen as 
after cold baths, a temporary increase of the red-cell count 
being noted. Phagocytosis is also increased. 

Effects on Respiration. — Depth of respiratory motions - 
and of COo excretion are increased. 

Effects on Heat Functions. — Deep massage, by its effect 
on the muscles, increases heat production ; superficial 
massage, by increasing skin hyperaemia, increases heat 
loss. 

Electrical Treatment. — Electricity has been used, in 
conjunction with other physio-therapeutic measures, at 
almost all spas for very many years; but since the war 
showed its efficacy in the treatment of wounded it has 
made enormous strides, and, instead of being the speciality 
of a few practitioners, its employment has been widespread 
and almost universal. It is viewed from two different 
standpoints. Most of us who before the war had been accus- 
tomed to employ it widely believed that it had a very 
definite recuperative action on nervous tissue, and hence 
it was used in neuritis, and, in the form of the Schnee and 
other electric baths, was designed simply to pass a current 
from one part of the body to another without any ulterior 
motive of causing muscular contractions ; those whose 
experience has been gained mainly in the treatment of 
muscular paralysis resulting from gunshot wound have 
had their attention focused on muscular contraction, and 
are inclined to doubt the efficacy of electricity in other 
directions. With a pretty large experience of both civilian 
and war work, I am inclined to think that our attitude in 



1 Increased muscular metabolism, whether as a result of muscular 
exercise or excited passively by massage, leads to the increased formation 
of CO2 in the muscular tissue, and this, reaching the respiratory centre, 
acts as a " hormone," and excites the centre to greater activity. 

2 Cf. footnote!. 



260 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

times past was more optimistic than the facts warranted, 
and, on the other hand, the war-workers' view is possibly 
too narrow. Possibly the truth will be found to lie between 
the two extremes, and that electrical impulses passing down 
a nerve that is no longer inflamed do tend to keep open 
paths of nervous impulse. Certainly, however, they are 
better omitted until all inflammation has subsided. 

Certain it is that at spas an enormous amount of useless 
electrical treatment is given, especially on the prescription 
of masseurs and " medical electricians," and the lay prescrip- 
tion of massage and electricity is a scandal of the first 
magnitude. In the government-controlled spas of New 
Zealand, and more especially at Kotorua, such treatment 
is given on medical prescription onl\', and practitioners 
sending their patients to Rotorua may rest assured that 
they will not be able to procure electrical treatment at 
the baths without a prescription, though of course they 
may get it outside. 

The equipment at Rotorua is really very complete, and 
is always being added to, so that there are few treatments 
indeed which cannot be obtained. 

All, or nearly all, electrical treatments arc enhanced in 
effect by the fact that the patient is also taking baths, 
as the skin is generally softer, moister, and better supplied 
with blood, and its resistance is thereb}' diminished. Also 
the bath treatment and the electrical treatment are, to 
a large extent, complementary, and finall}' — and this is by 
no means the least important factor — a patient taking a 
course of spa treatment will also readily take his electrical 
treatments with unfailing regularity, instead of at irregular 
and uncertain intervals as he is apt to do at home. 

Electrical treatment may be given in the usual way 
with moistened electrodes ; or it may be used to enhance 
the effects of massage by making the masseur's hand 
the electrode as in electro-massage ; it may be given in a 
full bath, where the patient's body is exposed to the largest 
possible electrode, the surrounding water ; in the Schnee 



ACCESSORY PHYSICAL TREATMENT 261 

multipolar bath, where selected extremities are immersed 
in independent baths, so that the current path can be 
directed at will ; it can be used for ionic medication, the 
introduction of drugs through the unbroken skin ; or, 
in the form of the static current, high frequency, or X-ray. 

Again, electricity can be used as a vehicle for heat or 
light in the form of diathermy, hot-air baths, and electric- 
light baths. 

For the actual technique of treatment the reader is 
referred to a work on medical electricity, but it may be 
helpful to give a list of the usual conditions treated with 
electricity at a spa, and for convenience it is assumed here 
that the spa is Rotorua, as it alone in New Zealand is at 
the time of writing fully equipped. 

Neuritis. — As it is usually a mixed nerve that is affected, 
we have to consider both the sensory and motor sides. 

Sensory. — The relief of pain and the recovery of normal 
sensation are our primary objects, and it is on this particular 
subject that there is room, for difference of opinion as to 
the efficacy of electricity. First of all, having sought and 
removed any probable cause such as a focus of infection, pro- 
longed rest of the part either by sling, splint, or bed, is 
essential, and if possible subthermal baths are given. The 
constant current with the anode to the nerve is used to soothe 
pain, followed by the lightest possible cffleurage. Later, 
a fine faradic current or sinusoidal current, either by elec- 
trodes or in the full electric bath or Schnee bath. If these 
measures fail, the ionic introduction of salicylic acid may 
be tried. My own opinion, however, is that electricity 
at this stage is of infinitely less value than rest and baths, 
and indeed is worse than useless when acute inflammation 
is present. In chronic conditions the counter-irritating 
effect of the vacuum electrode over the nerve is quite 
undoubted. 

Motor. — Here we are on safer ground. A neuritis must 
be severe indeed if the muscles it supplies are beyond 
recovery. The same principles must be adopted as in the 



262 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

treatment of gunshot wound of nerve ; the limb is warmed 
and rested, and the muscles are tested if necessary for 
reaction of degeneration. If the condition is acute, no 
electrical treatment is admissible, resting and soothing 
measures only are adopted ; in sub-acute and chronic 
conditions very gentle exercise of the individual muscles 
is given ; if they react to interrupted current they are 
cautiously exercised with the Bristow battery, taking care 
not to over-fatigue or over-stimulate them ; if they do not 
so react, they are made to contract with the interrupted 
galvanic current, using the anode or kathode according 
to which gives the better contraction. If no contractile 
response can be obtained it is useless to torment the inactive 
muscle with heavy currents, and counter-irritation of the 
nerve, ensurement of rest, and just sufficient gentle massage 
of the muscle to prevent adhesions and to promote circulation 
is all that can be done. The keynote of the treatment of 
neuritis, it will be observed, is rest rather than electricity. 

Neuralgia.- -Here, again, we may speak more confidently. 
Counter-irritation by the vacuum electrode or by sparking, 
faradic current, sinusoidal current, or anodal stroking may 
all afford relief. In obstinate cases the introduction of 
salicylic ions is often effectual, if the nerve is sufficiently 
superficial. 

Sciatica may be a neuralgia, a neuritis, a perineuritis, 
or may be of central origin, and its treatment will obviously 
depend upon the diagnosis of the cause. 

Trigeminal neuralgia can be treated by the vacuum 
electrode ; other electric currents can hardly be used to 
the head in sufficient strength. Like all other neuralgias, 
it may be improved by general tonic measures, such as 
the negative breeze of the static machine ; sometimes the 
sedative action of an electric bath succeeds, though it is 
doubtful what proportion of the credit should be given 
to the electricity and what to the bath. 

Spasmodic Twitchings and Contractures. — Gentle electric 
currents give great relief in some cases, but their action 



ACCESSORY PHYSICAL TREATMENT 263 

is uncertain, probably because the aetiology of the condition 
is as frequently uncertain. 

Functional Diseases of the Nervous System. — Here we 
may meet with the greatest success, the treatment acting 
by suggestion. Close supervision, however, is needed, 
as by drawing attention to the part by treatment we may 
only succeed in riveting the affliction more firmly on the 
patient. 

Organic Lesions of the Central Nervous System. — Treat- 
ment of the central nervous system by electricity is, I 
believe, quite useless/ but we can treat the results of the 
lesion. 

Thus, in hemiplegia we can most usefully exercise the 
paralysed muscles pending the time that the central ganglia 
regain control, and by so doing we prevent a good deal of 
unnecessary muscular atrophy, and so shorten convalescence. 
In the same way we can treat muscles paralysed by spinal 
lesions, if there is any hope of returning central control. 
We can attempt to stimulate the central control ; this makes 
us feel that we are doing something, and, by making the 
patient also feel that something is being done, may lift 
him out of the slough of despond. 

Adhesions and Scar Tissue. — Cataphoresis with chlorine 
or iodine ions, coupled with baths and massage, will often 
give the most brilliant results in the most unpromising 
cases, but prolonged treatment is necessary owing to the 
small depth of tissue penetrated by the ions at each sitting ^ 
and to the danger of burns if too intensive treatment is 
attempted. 

1 This is, of course, merely an expression of personal opinion. 

~ The depth to which ions penetrate the tissues varies, of course, to 
a large e.xtcnt with the strength and duration of the current, but as a 
general rule it is no more than from i mill, to lo millimetres. It is probable 
that the ions of the heavy metals combine with the phosphoric ions of 
the tissues to form insoluble phosphates, and so pass out of the ionic 
state in the form of a precipitate in the tissues, and are then unable to 
penetrate deeper (Lewis Jones, Latham and English's System of Treat- 
jneiit). 



264 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

Chronic Ulcers. — Unhealthy granulations may be cleared 
up, and healing promoted, by the introduction of zinc ions. 

Pruritus. — Pruritus ani and pruritus vulvae may yield 
to cataphoresis with zinc or cocaine, or both, when other 
measures fail. High frequency treatment is also useful. 

Gout and Rheumatism.— Localized gouty and rheumatic 
conditions may occasionally be treated advantageously 
by the introduction of appropriate ions by cataphoresis. 

Skin Diseases. — The treatment of skin diseases by X-rays 
and by electric-light baths has hitherto been little practised 
at Rotorua, though facilities for such treatment exist. 

High Blood-pressure. — Numerous cases of high blood- 
pressure are sent to our spas, and notably to Rotorua, for 
treatment. In addition, so large a proportion of the other 
cases exhibit this symptom that it is desirable in spa prac- 
tice to make an examination of the systolic pressure a 
routine matter. 

In patients in whom there is no apparent renal lesion, 
the treatment on the high-frequency couch would certainly 
appear to assist in lowering the pressure. Such treatment 
is of course usually combined with other measures, such as 
attention to the diet and bowels, to habits such as the ex- 
cessive use of tobacco, with the use of hypothcrmal baths, 
and with the internal administration of radium water. A 
plant for the manufacture of radio-active water is available 
at the Rotorua baths, the usual dose hitherto being 10,000 
Mache units per diem.^ 

Medical Gymnastics, Active and Passive Movements.— 
While theoretically the value of these exercises in the 
treatment and prevention of disease is fully acknowledged, 
practically their use by the profession, except at a spa, is 
extremely limited. For the most part they require, for 
their successful performance, either a trained and trust- 
worthy operator or the medical attendant must carry them 

1 The tendency of late has been towards the progressive increase of 
dosage, so that the maximal dose of a few years ago has now become the 
minimal dose. 



ACCESSORY PHYSICAL TREATMENT 265 

out himself, an operation requiring much patience, special 
experience, and a good deal more time than can generally 
be afforded. A special institution, such as Rotorua, with 
its own trained staff, can therefore more conveniently deal 
with these cases than the general practitioner, and there is 
in addition the advantage that douche and bath treatment 
can also simultaneously be carried out. 

The value of exercise in the development of muscle 
is of course universally recognized, but the value of the 
accurate dosage of gradually increased resistance is apt to 
be overlooked, though this of course is the very essence 
of the familiar Schott movements. 

Baths, massage, and the like measures flush the muscles 
with blood, promote the absorption of exudates, and cause 
a temporary increase of muscular bulk. Electrical stimu- 
lation, through the nerve if that be intact, or directly of the 
muscle if the nerve be damaged, exercises the muscle 
and prevents its atrophy, while the reinforcing effect of the 
electric current on exhausted muscle is well known. No 
agent, however, has so powerful an effect as voluntary 
muscular contraction, ^ especially against a progressive 
resistance. 

The principal points aimed at are : 

(i) The strengthening of selected muscles, the action 
of which will tend to correct deformity, as in spinal curvature, 
or the toning up some hypotonic function, as in certain forms 
of constipation and in cardiac weakness. 

(2) The co-ordination and re-education of muscular 
movements, as in locomotor and spastic ataxia, and after 
gunshot wounds of the nervous system. 

(3) The breaking down of adhesions after traumatism 
or disease. 

(4) Secondary effects, on metabolism in general and on 

1 To enable the voluntar)' use of partly paralysed muscle in G.S.W. 
of nerve and at the same time to prevent the muscle stretching, the author 
used rubber bands, harnessed to active muscles, to duplicate the paralysed 
ones {Mil. Phys. Orthopcsdics, Herbert, 191 8). 



266 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

the circulatory and digestive systems in particular, as a 
result of educated respiration. 

Light Baths. — ^The effects of light on the organism are 
due to ; 

(a) the actinic rays. 

(6) the calorific rays. 

The actinic rays rcflexly increase metabolism by stimu- 
lating the exposed nerve-endings. Oxidation is increased, 
as is evidenced by an increased output of carbonic acid, 
and the sweat glands would appear to be stimulated to 
greater activity. Light may be used in the form of sun- 
baths, as the electric-light bath, or locally, as in Finscn's 
method. The latter is not in use in the New Zealand 
baths, but the direct action of sunlight is much used at 
such open-air baths as the Postmaster at Rotorua, and 
greatly enhances the effect of the mineral water. I have 
on many occasions seen benefit result from exposing the 
joints of rheumatoid patients to direct sunlight, and chronic 
ulcers will heal, and some skin diseases clear up, under 
the same influence. Both arc-light baths, with predominant 
actinic rays, and incandescent-light baths, with mixed 
rays, may be obtained at Rotorua. The effect of the baths 
is to combine the stimulus of light rays with more or less 
radiant-heat rays as desired, and radiant heat warms the 
tissues in a manner totally different from the conducted 
heat of an ordinary bath. The body temperature may 
rapidly be raised 4° F. or even 5° F., and Kellogg states 
that there is a markedly increased blood-count, while there 
is generally a rapid onset of profuse sweating. The bath 
is usually followed by a cooling measure, and the head is 
kept cool throughout. It is indicated more especially in 
chronic purin poisoning and in obesity. 

Blue light, in which the ultra-violet rays as well as those 
of longer wave-length of the visible spectrum are excluded, 
is said to have a sedative and anaesthetic effect. This 
treatment can be obtained at Rotorua. 

Heat. — This agent is of course a principal factor in 



ACCESSORY PHYSICAL TREATAIENT 267 

ordinary thermal baths, and in vapour baths. It can also be 
used in the form of dry hot air, either locally or generally. 
The apparatus in use at Rotorua is heated by dull red-hot 
electric wires in the walls of a metallic box. By such an 
apparatus a joint or a whole limb can be surrounded by 
dry air at a temperature of from 300° to 500° F. The 
essential effect of this is to cause intense hyperaemia of the 
part, with all the consequent toxin-neutralizing flood of 
plasma and phagocytic reparative activity so graphically 
pictured by Bier. The resultant relief of pain and stiff- 
ness in a joint so treated is often very striking, and constitutes 
the local hot-air bath one of the most useful weapons at 
our disposal in combating, say, an obstinately stiff and painful 
knee. The possibility of these baths so raising the local 
temperature as to exercise a bactericidal action is discussed 
elsewhere (p. 241). 



8^ 



CHAPTER XVIII 

DIET 

It is hardly necessary to insist on the importance of 
diet in spa treatment : the difficulty unfortunately arises 
that in most of the British health resorts, including those 
of New Zealand, it is exceedingly difficult for a patient to 
obtain a specified diet. Even when facilities for procuring 
it exist the patient is generally so surrounded with edible 
temptations that it is almost asking of him too much wholly 
to resist, and it is only in a special institution that dietetic 
treatment can be properly carried out. In former days, 
when every kind of rheumatic condition was attributed to 
uric acid, a special spa diet was thought essential, and 
was inflicted in routine fashion on almost all patients. Such 
a uniform diet is now held to be not only unnecessary, 
but in most cases positively harmful. Apart from the 
fact that different forms of arthritic disease demand 
different diets, the personal idiosyncrasy of the patient 
must be studied, and in no branch of therapeutics is it 
more true that we must treat the patient rather than the 
disease. 

Broadly speaking, while it is necessary in many cases of 
true gout to restrict the diet, and especially articles of food 
rich in nucleins and extractives, in the great toxic group — 
that is, in the polyarthritic cases exhibiting the jaw-neck 
syndrome ' — it is usually advisable to order an abundant 
and generous diet, and to restrict it only in so far as the 
digestive capacity of the individual compels. 

Diet in Toxic Cases. — These cases, all due to some form of 

1 Cf. page 138. 
268 



DIET 269 

bacterial toxin, comprise the familiar but ill-defined 
rheumatoid arthritis ; toxic arthritis due to infection from 
teeth, tonsils, appendix, etc. ; gonorrhoeal arthritis ; dysen- 
teric arthritis ; and cases following the acute specific fevers 
such as measles, scarlet fever, and so forth. There are also 
many cases in which the nature of the toxaemia is ill-defined 
or unknown, but which conform to the general type. 

In all this class ' special diet is of comparatively little 
value. The question of uric acid does not enter, except 
in those cases in which a pre-existing gouty condition is 
complicated by a superimposed toxaemia. In these latter 
it may be necessary to take into account the necessities 
of the gouty element, but as a rule the toxic side pre- 
dominates, and the strict diet of gout requires severe 
modification. 

The essential feature of the diet should be the main- 
tenance of the strength and general condition of the patient, 
so that a full nourishing diet is indicated, while at the same 
time the digestive apparatus is carefully looked after and 
especial care is taken to ensure free action of the bowels, 
kidneys, and skin. 

Diet in Gout. — It is of course only in gout that the uric 
acid element enters, and it is only in gouty cases that a 
really strict diet need be enforced. 

We may define gout as a chronic intoxication with the 
products of metabolism, and essentially of proteid meta- 
bolism, which is accompanied by, though not necessarily 
caused by, an increase of uric acid in the body. 

It is probable that the disease is due to deficient excretion 
rather than to excessive uric acid formation, and the deficient 
excretion may be due to (i) damaged kidneys, or (2) the 
form in which the uric acid is presented to them. 

The uric acid is partly endogenous, the product of the 
metabolism of the patient's own body, and partly exogenous, 
derived from ingested food. By diet we can of course 

1 Appendix and allied cases require removal of the cause rather than 
dieting. 



270 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

modify the amount of exogenous uric acid, and this in two 
ways : we can cut down the total quantity of food, or we 
can modify the quality. As a rule, both methods are 
necessary, 

1. The Quantity. — Here the personal equation is a largely 
determining factor. Plethoric sthenic patients nearly always 
require some restriction of the total amount of food they 
take. They should always get up from the table slightly 
hungry. This would, however, be an unsafe rule in asthenic 
cases, which, after all, constitute quite a large proportion 
of the whole. At the same time, any excess of food stag- 
nating in the bowel should be swept out by purgative 
waters or other medicine. 

2. The Quality. — The bulk of exogenous uric acid is 
derived from — 

[a) The splitting up and oxidation of nuclcins. Certain 
glandular substances, such as the thyroid and pancreas, 
and the flesh of very young animals yield abundant 
nuclco-proteins, which are split up by ferments into protein 
and nucleic acid. Nucleic acid is further broken down 
during digestion by a ferment (nuclease) into purin bases, 
which in turn are converted into uric acid. 

{b) Certain proteid food substances, especially animal 
extracts which are already rich in these purin bases. 

(c) Certain vegetables, especially legumes, also contain 
purin bodies. 

{d) A certain small but irreducible amount is formed from 
the ordinary proteins of food, though in the main proteids, 
other than the purins and nucleo-proteids, increase the urea 
secretion only, and not the uric acid. 

There are other food substances which, while not adding 
directly to the uric acid output, may be of indirect importance 
in regard to its excretion. These are : 

{a) Tea, coffee, and cocoa, which contain the methyl- 
purins theine, caffein, and theobromine. The corresponding 
purin bases in the urine are paraxanthin derived from the 
theophyllin of tea, heteroxanthin from caffein, and methyl- 



DIET 271 

xanthin from theobromine. Thus tea, coffee, and cocoa 
raise the total purin excretion, but not that of uric acid. 

It is possible, however, that the increased excretory 
work thus thrown on the kidneys may further embarrass 
their work of uric acid excretion. 

(b) Fats and carbohydrates. These economize the 
consumption of proteid, or, in other words, if a larger quantity 
of them is ingested a smaller amount of proteid food becomes 
an excessive, and therefore, in gouty cases, a poisonous 
amount. 

(c) Sodium chloride. There is at present considerable 
diversity of opinion as to the action of common salt in 
gout. It has been argued that excess of sodium chloride 
tends to promote the formation of insoluble sodium biurate. 
On the other hand, many mineral waters used in the treat- 
ment of gout contain sodium chloride as their main in- 
gredient, and Weber ^ says that " the increased secretion 
of common salt by the kidneys favours the solubility of 
uric acid and facilitates its elimination in the urine." 

(d) Alcohol and condiments. Universal clinical experience 
has limited the use of these substances in gout. There are 
asthenic cases, however, in which both are distinctly in- 
dicated. 

(e) Fruits. Here, again, there is a hopeless diversity 
of opinion. There can be no doubt whatever that many 
gouty patients are always injm-iously affected by fruit, 
but this certainly is not the case with all. 

Confusion of terms has been to some extent responsible 
for a rather general prohibition of the use of " acid " fruits 
in gout, it being overlooked that the vegetable acids increase 
the alkalinity of the blood. 

Fruits are rich in potassium salts, and this potassium 
appears to displace and replace the sodium radicle of 
salts.- The general tendency of fruits is to alkalize the 
blood, to render it richer in potassium salts, and to act 

1 Balneotherapy. 

- Bunge, quoted by Stewart, Manual of Physiology. 



272 THE HOT SPRINGS OF NEW ZEALAND 

as a diuretic and laxative. In view of the possibility of 
uric acid being presented to the kidneys as a comparatively 
insoluble compound, this displacing action of potassium 
may have considerable value, a value enhanced by the 
simultaneous diuretic and laxative action. 

Purin-free Diet. — A strictly purin-free diet is as a rule neither 
feasible nor desirable for continuous use in gouty patients 
taking a course of mineral-water treatment. Such a restricted 
diet would, especially in conjunction with baths, speedily 
lead to a dangerous debility. The list would comprise, 
among other things, eggs, milk, white bread, butter, biscuits, 
cereals, cream, sugar, syrup, jam, marmalade, cake, cream 
soups, potatoes, cauliflower, lettuce, nuts, cheese, ices, 
rice, cornflour, tapioca, custards, unfcrmcntcd fruit juices. 
Its only use is either (a) to serve as a basis or guide in drawing 
up a diet sheet to which can be added such comparatively 
innocuous foods as may be thought advisable by the pre- 
scriber ; or (b) as a temporary measure to clear the urine 
of exogenous uric acid as a preliminary step in estimating 
the patient's purin tolerance. 

(a) Thus the diet of a gouty patient at a spa may consist 
of : (i) any or all of the above-mentioned purin-free 
articles, in so far as they agree with the patient's digestion ; 
(2) foods of moderate purin content, e.g. fish, fowl, mutton, 
or a very little beef, but not young chicken, veal, or lamb, 
nearly all " above ground" vegetables, but with legumes 
strictly limited, and such fruits as agree. 

Glandular substances, much beef, stock soups, the flesh 
of very young animals, and, generally, alcohol should be 
forbidden. 

(b) To estimate his purin the patient is put on a strictly 
purin-free diet for five days. 

The factor of the exogenous uric acid being thus eliminated, 
his endogenous excretion can be measured, and it can 
be observed whether he is excreting his normal quantity 
of vuic acid, or whether too much is being locked up. 
He is now given a measured quantity of purin in the 



DIET 273 

form of food, and his output of uric acid is again measured 
daily. 

Deducting the previously measured endogenous uric 
acid, his exogenous output is found. By Van Noorden's 
method, if less than a certain proportion of the purin intake 
is excreted as uric acid, we conclude that we have exceeded 
the patient's purin tolerance, and so repeat with half-doses. 
By Umber's method it is noted whether or how much the 
excretion of exogenous uric acid is delayed beyond the 
normal twenty- four hours. Thus, if the delay is three 
days, the patient is put on a purin-free diet, with purin 
food every three days. 

Diet in Rheumatism. — As true rheumatism is a disease 
not of uric acid, but of bacterial origin, the diet is much as 
in the syndrome cases. As acute rheumatism is not a disease 
suitable for spa treatment, the question of diet does not 
concern us here. In convalescence after acute rheumatism 
we have to concentrate on maintaining the strength of the 
patient and combating the ansemia. 

Chronic rheumatism is so indefinite a term that it is 
difficult to lay down any general rules as to diet. 

If we eliminate all cases which are really of gouty origin, 
then we have to study the digestive capacity and idiosyncra'^y 
of the patient, and to clear our minds entirely of any con- 
sideration of a problematical uric acid diathesis. 



CHAPTER XIX 

ENVIRONMENT — CLIMATE — SUGGESTION 

Change of Environment. — This includes not only change of 
scene, but of climate, rest from ordinary occupation, 
amusements, and new interests. The beneficial effects of 
change, even apparently for the worse, in the convalescence 
from acute disease or during the slow course of chronic 
disease, are so much a part of universal human experience 
that there is no need to labour the point of proof. It would 
seem almost an instinct for humanity to sigh for fresh 
scenes and fresh faces at certain stages of convalescence 
— surroundings that shall have in them no link of association 
with the disagreeable time of illness. The patient confined 
to one room associates a pattern on the wallpaper, a certain 
blotch on the ceiling, a certain limited view from the window, 
for ever with disagreeable experiences. He is moved to 
another room, the thread of unpleasant memory is broken, 
there is a sense of fresh interest, of recuperation. To a 
less degree this sense of confinement and monotony also 
applies to towns, and even countries : the same country is 
only a larger room ; a foreign spa, with a foreign tongue and 
foreign customs, even with foreign discomforts, breaks 
still more the links with the past. For this reason, for 
English patients, the English spas can never hope to cope 
on quite equal terms with the foreign ones. The picturesque 
Maori inhabitants and the weird thermal phenomena of 
the Rotorua district are assets of no mean value to a health 
resort. 

Climate. — This may act beneficially in two ways : firstly 
and in a general wa}^ as part of the change of environment, 

274 



ENVIRONMENT— CLIMATE— SUGGESTION 275 

and secondly in a specific manner, if a resort has been cliosen 
deliberately with a view to a climate specially suited to 
the individual needs of the patient. 

On account of the circumscribed area of the country, 
the New Zealand spas cannot of course compete in the 
matter of choice of climate with those of Europe, wide- 
flung over a continent : there is, however, a certain choice 
of bracing and sedative climates, and for Australian visitors 
there is the complete change from a continental to an island 
atmosphere. The climate of each individual resort is 
considered with the description of each spa : that of New 
Zealand as a whole is dealt with in a special chapter con- 
tributed by the Government IVIeteorologist. 

Suggestion. — It has been frequently advanced, chiefly 
by those who have had no opportunity or curiosity to inquire 
into the subject, that suggestion alone is the curative agent 
in spa treatment. That suggestion plays a part, and a most 
important part, not only in the relief of indefinite and border- 
land cases, but in the treatment of definite disease, it would 
of course be preposterous to deny, and indeed there can 
be no doubt that the whole atmosphere of a mineral-water 
resort lends itself most admirably to the fostering of an 
influence of suggestion. Such a therapeutic agent is one 
for which we cannot be too devoutly thankful, and one 
which it would be the height of folly to disdain, and he is 
most successful who uses every legitimate weapon in his 
armamentarium as occasion may arise. Doubtless the 
spa physician finds his environment facilitates the use of 
suggestive treatment, but there is no medical man who 
does not consciously or unconsciously use suggestion every 
day of his life. , 



APPENDIX 



TABLE OF MINERAL WATERS ARRANGED ACCORDING TO 
THEIR OSMOTIC PRESSURE 

The following table shows some of the principal mineral waters 
arranged according to their osmotic pressure, relative to that of the 
blood. It is only approximately accurate, a margin of 150 grains per 
gallon being allowed on either side of the isotonic point. Further, as 
we have already seen (page 233), in estimating the osmotic pressure of 
a water, we have to take into account the number of free ions in solu- 
tion rather than the number of molecules, and, to arrive at this, the 
relative depression of the freezing-point of the solution as compared 
with that of pure water has to be noted. So far no cryoscopic 
examination of the New Zealand waters has been made, and the 
results here are therefore shown as molecular concentration relative 
to a solution of sodium chloride isotonic with blood (0-9 per cent, or 
630 grains per gallon), and the possibilities of ionization are ignored. 

The importance of the classification lies in the fact that each class 
has certain therapeutic characteristics. 

Thus, isotonic solutions, taken internally, are more easily absorbed 
into the blood, and indeed are sometimes administered hypodermi- 
cally or intravenously, e.g. the waters of La Bourboule, and, again, 
diluted sea-water.^ Strong hypertonic waters are apt to prove 
irritating to the stomach, but may be given in small doses, when the 
kidneys are sound, to relieve hydraemia and abdominal plethora ; 
nearly all purgative waters are hypertonic. 

Hypotonic solutions tend to dissolve mucous deposits and bring 
about dilatation of the vessels. 2 



HYPOTONIC 
All the " Sulphur 
Waters " except White 
Island, aiid including 
Rotorua, Taupo, Waira- 
kei, Hanmer, etc. All 
the " Simple Thermal 
Waters" 

Abbotsford 

Akitio 

Bay of Islands 

Copland River 

Fox River 

Heathcote Valley 

Helcnsville 

Hikutaia 

Kamo 

Kati-kati 

Lyttelton 

McLean's : Napier 

Mahurangi 

Matamata 

Mercury Bay 

Miranda 



Motu 
Ngakawau 

Ngavvha 

Ohacwai 

Ormond Valley 

Paeroa 

Papaiti 

Patangata 

Pipiriki 

Puketitiri 

Rahu 

Raukawa 

Soda Spring, Taupo 

Te Aroha : magnesia 



Parakao 

Puriri 

Te Aroha : hot alkaline 

Weber 



HYPERTONIC 



chalybeate 



Waikohu 

Waikoura 

Wairongoa 

Waitangi 

Waitoa 

Waiwera 



ISOTONIC 
Ihuraua 



Great Barrier 

Hokianga 

Kawhia 

Kopuowhara 

Kotuku 

Maranga 

Mataroa 

Mokau 

Morere 

Okam's Bay 

Pafiaua 

Taumaranui 

Te Kuiti 

Te Puia 

Totoro 

Wallingford 

WTiite Island 



1 Sea-water varies considerably in its saline content in different oceans ; 
Mediterranean and Atlantic average 3 to 4 per cent. 

2 Fortescue Fox : Med. Hydrology. 

276 



the 



INDEX 



Aachen, 71. 210 
Abbotsford spring, 190, 200 
A. C. Bath, Taupo, 195 
Access to spas, 11 
Accessory physical treatment, 257 
Acid baths, 77, 84, 255 
,, ,, dangers of, 85 

carbonic, gas baths, 77, 131 
„ springs, 29 

hydrochloric, 29, 198, 199 

pentathionic, 199 

sulphuric, 75, 197 et seq. 

sulphurous, 21, 22, 29, 254 

waters, 29, 75, 197 
origin of, 30 
Acidulated waters, 192 
Acne, 159 
Actinic rays, 266 
Active hypersemia, 249 
Acute rheumatism, 140 
Adhesions, treatment of, 263 
Akitio spring, 190 
Alcohol, 271 

Alkaline waters, 28, 112, 178 
Alterative action of waters, 227 
Amberley springs, 191 
Anaemia, 84, 121, 133, 157, 178, 184. 

186 
Anions, 232 

Antacids, 114, 178, 184 
Aorangi spring, 188 
Aratiatia Rapids, 105 
Arnozan and Lamarque : colloids, 

234 
Arsenic spring, Taupo, 189 

waters, 202 
Arthritis, 145, 159, 161 
Astringents, 184 
Auckland, climate of, 211 



Bagneres de Luchon, 193 

Barr, Sir J., silicates in diet, 68 



Baruch, hyperaemia, 243, 251 
Bates, Rev. D. C, climate, 211 
Baths, acid, 77, 84 

alkaline, 68, 121 
Berthollet, 85 
cold, 248, 252 
effervescing, 131, 155 
electric, 73. 97, 260 
hot, 249, 252 
light, 266 
mineral, 254 
mud, 87 

physical pressure of, 254 
plain water, 236 
Russian, 85 

subthermal, 77, 132, 154 
swimming, 73, 97 
tepid, 251 
vapour, 85 
Bath establishmentf. , Hanmer, 96 

Helensville, 124 
,, Kamo, 131 

Morere, 128 
,, Okoroire, 134 

,,■ Rotorua, 62 

., Tarawera, 125 

,, Taupo, 107 

Te Aroha, 121 
Te Puia, 129 
Tokaanu, no 
Waingaro, 136 
Wairakei, 104 
Waiwera, 123 
Bay of Islands spring, 190 
Beneke, sweating, 242 
BiCKEL, sodium bicarbonate, 114 
Bier, hyperaemia, 251, 258 
Blood circulation, effect of baths on, 

243 
Blood contents, effect of baths on, 

80, 243 
Blue light, 266 

Boilers, the, 103, 109, 189, 200 
Boihng springs, evolution of, 35 
Borates, 28, 72, 95, 203 



277 



278 



INDEX 



Borates, toxic action of, 95 
Brown, D., pharmacological action 

of sulphur waters, 70 
Brun, volcanic gases, 16 
Burton's spring, 203 



Calcareous waters, 184 
Calcic-sodic-muriated waters, 171 
Calculus, bihary, renal, vesical, 117, 

157 
California springs, 114, 197 

Calorific rays, 266 

Cameron spring, 201, 202 

Carbonic acid gas baths, 77, 1 30, 254 
,, ,, indifferent tem- 
perature of, 255 
,, springs, 29, 131 
,, volcanic, 21 

Cataphoresis, 263 

Chalybeate waters, 118, 120, 130, 
186 

Champagne spring, 91, 92, 196 

Change of environment, 274 

Charteris Bay springs, 183 

Chilblains, 154 

Chlorosis, 157, 186 

Christchurch, climate of, 218 

Church Bay springs, 183 

Classification of rheumatic diseases, 

137 
Classification of waters, 162 
CUmate, effects of, 274 

of New Zealand, 4, 211 
Clothing, invalid, 8 
Coffee Pot spring, 201 
Cold baths, 248 
,, drinks, 234 

springs, Te Aroha, 120 
Colloidal colouring of water, 25 

state, 233 
Constipation, 156 

Constituents of water, origin of, 26 
Contrexeville, 184 
Convalescence, 159 
Correlated areas, 245 
Critical temperature of water, 17 
Crow's nest geyser, 106, 195 
Cryoscopy, 233 
Cystitis, 184 
CzERNY, on silicates, 68 

D 

Devil's Eyeglass spring, 189 
Diabetes, 118, 155 
Diathermy, 238, 241 
Diet in disease, 268 



Diet while taking chalybeate water, 
186 
,, while taking sulphur water, 99 
Dissociated water. 17 
Diuretic action of waters, 132, 178, 

184, 186 
Duncdin, climate of, 219 
Dysenteric arthritis, 141, 161 
Dysmenorrhoea, 159 
Dyspepsia, 156 



Eczema, 158 
Effects of baths, 247 

,, ,, drinking water, 235 
Electrical conductivity, Rotorua 

waters, 76 
Electrical treatment, 259 
Elevation of spas, 7 
Environment, 274 
Excretion of toxins, 242 
ExNER, blood-vessels, 250 
Explosion craters, 23 



Fairy spring, radio-activity of, 91 

Felix, silicates, 67 

Fenner. hthium, 95 

Flack, M., artificial pyrexia, 239 

Fox, Fortescue,' freshness, 230 

,, ,, intensive action, 

239, 246 
Fox River springs, 183, 191 
Franz Josef water, 167 
Freshness, quality of, 83, 121, 132, 

166, 230 
Friedrichshall, 182 
Fruit diet, 271 
Fumarole, 15, 18, 23, 35 
Functional nervous diseases, 263 
Furunculosis, 1 59 



Gases in baths, 254 

,, radio-active, 22, 90 
volcanic, 21, 29 
Gastein, 166 

Gautier, a., endogenous water, 230 
Geikie, superheated water, 27 
Geysers, 33 et seq. 
Glycosuria, 118, 155, 178 
Goitre, 176 

Gold in mineral mud, 202 
Gonococcus, effect of heat on, 241 
Gonorrhoeal arthritis, 141, 161 



INDEX 



279 



Gout, 140, 143 

electrical treatment of, 264 
Great Barrier Island springs, 174 
Gymnastics, medical, 264 

H 

Hammii-L, borates, 204 

Hamurana, radio-activity of, 91, 92 

Hanmer springs, 93, 195, 205 

Harrogate, 193 

Haupiri, 167 

Hawke's Bay, climate of, 213 

Head, skin areas, 245 

Heart disease, 133, 155 

Heat, dry, 266 

Heathcote springs, 183 

Hector, Sir J., analyses, 164 

Helensville springs, 124, 170 

Hemiplegia, 154 

Hermitage, the, 7 

High blood-pressure, 155, 264 

Hikutaia spring, 205 

Hill climbing, 98 

Hill, L., artificial pyrexia, 239 

Hilton, nerve areas, 246 

Hokianga springs, 170 

Hokitika climate, 217 

Horakikimumuru springs, 198 

Hormone action of CO2, 259 

Hospitals (mineral water), 60, 100 

Hot drinks, 235 

Huka Falls, 105 

Hutchinson and Collier, lithium, 

95 

Hutchinson, Woods, skin-heart, 

250 
Hydrochloric acid, 29, 198 
Hydrothermal phenomena, 15 
Hyperacidity, 115, 178 
Hyperaemia, 249 
Hyperpnoea, 239 
Hyperpyrexia, 238 
Hyperthyroid arthritis, 1 39 
Hypoacidity, 115, 178 
Hysteria, 152 



Ihuraua spring, 177, 186, 189 
Indifferent temperature of gases, 

248 
of skin, 248 
,, ,, of water, 

248 
Insomnia, 153 

Intensive action of baths, 239, 246 
Invercargill, chmate of, 220 
Iodine, action of, 176 



Iodine spring, Rotomahana, 189, 196 

waters, 126, 175 
Ionization, 231 

,, complete, 76 

Ions, depth of penetration, 263 
Iron spring, Taupo, 188 
Irving, sulphur and mercur\-, 71 



J 

Janssen, spectroscopical examina- 
tion of gases, 21 
Taw-neck syndrome, 137, 138, 161 
Jones, L., acne, 159 ; ions, 263 



K 

Kamo springs, 130, i8i 
Kaolin, 47 

Katikati springs, 168, 171 
Rations, 232 
Kauri gum, 210 
Kawhia springs, 173 
Kellogg, massage, 258 
Kerapiti blowhole, 105 
Kiriohinekei spring, 103 
KiscH, on H2S, 69 ; sodium bicar- 
bonate, 115 ; iodine, 176 
Knoepfelmacher, blood, 244 
Kopuowhara spring, 174, 177 
Krakatoa obsidian, 16 
Kreuznach, 172 
Kuirau springs, 194 



La Bourboule, 203 

Lake Sumner springs, 167 

Lakes, explosion crater, 23 

Lane, Sir A., arthritis, 143 

Laughing-gas spring, 201 

Leduc, electrolysis, 95 ; ionization, 

232, 233 
Leucorrhcea, 159 
Levico, 192 
Light baths, 266 

,, blue, 266 
Linossier, sodium bicarbonate, 114 
Lithium, 72, 95, 119, i73 
Llewellyn, arthritis, 139 
Lobster bath, 64 
Locomotor ataxia, 154 
Lon.gitudinal fibres of arteries, 250 
Low blood-pressure, 155 
Lowering effect of waters, 116, 178 
Luff, lithium, 95 
Lumbago, 150 



280 



INDEX 



M 

Mackenzie, sensory areas, 245 
Maclaurin, radio-activity, 90, 114 
,, analyses waters, 163, 

199 
McLean's spring, 171 
McNeill, borates, 204 
Magma, 16, 17 
Magnesia spring. Taupe, 205 
Magnesium waters, 119, 180 
Magranti, blood, 243 
Mahurangi springs, 171 
Malfroy geyser, radio-activity of, 91 
Mangapakeha spring, 188 
Manupirua spring, 196 
Maranga spring, 177 
Marcasite. 31 
Maruia springs, 167 
Massage, 258 

Matamata spring, 135, 167 
Mataroa spring, 177 
Matuatonga spring, 195 
Meltzer, artificial pyrexia, 240 
Menorrhagia, 159 
Mercury Bay spring, 171, 175 

,, in mud, 209, 210 
Metabolism, effects of baths, 245 
Mineral-water treatment, 229 
Miranda springs, 168, 205 
Mokau springs, 171 
Moore, B., renal calculi, 117 
Morere springs. 126, 174, 176 
Morinsville springs, 168 
Motu springs, 179, 190 
Mt. Cook, 7 
Mt. Egmont accommodation, 7 

springs, 167 
Mud, analyses, 88, 202, 209 

mercurial, 209 

radio-active, 91 

siUceous sulphur, 209 

springs, 47, 208 

volcanoes, 47 
Muriated waters, 168 

alkaline waters, 179 

N 

Neilson's spring, 190 

Nelson, climate of, 216 

Nephritis, 157 

Nervous functional disorders, 152 

„ organic disorders, 153, 263 
Neuralgia, 152, 262 
Neurasthenia, 152 
Neuritis, 150, 261 
Ngaruapuia spring, 8 
Ngawha spring, 187 



Obsidian, 16 

Ocean router,, 7 

Ohaewai spring, 180, 190, 200, 209 

Oil Bath, 194 

Okain's Bay springs, 173, 183, 188 

Okoroire springs, 134, 166 

Old Priest bath, 77 

Old Sulphur spring, Taupo, 195 

Onepu springs, 13, 196 

Onetapu springs, 191 

Organic nervous disorders, 153, 263 

origin of sinters, 46 
Origin of thermal waters, i6, 25, 30 
Original water theory, 17 
Ormond Valley springs, 182, 185 
Osmotic pressure, 233, 276 
Osteo-arthritis, 142 
Otway's spring, 179 
Oxaluria, 184 



Paeroa spring, 119, 188 

Pahaua spring, 174, 177 

Painkiller spring, 64 

Papaiti spring, 170 

Parakao spring, 186 

Pascault, silicates. 68 

Patangata spring. 18S 

Pawlow, sodium bicarbonate, 114 

Peale, classification of waters, 164 

Pelvic diseases, 159 

Pentathionic acid, 199 

Physical treatment, 257 

Pipiriki springs. 170 

Pipping, pyrexia. 240 

Plain water, effects of, 234 

Plombidres douche, 192 

Pond, analysis of waters, 164 

Postmaster bath, 76, 79, 190, 197 

,, radio-activity, 91 
PoYNTON, hyperthyroidism, 139 
Precautions in baths, 85 
Priest bath, 76 et seq., 197 
,, ,, indications for, 84 

radio-activity of, 91 
Pruritus, 264 
Psoriasis, 159 

Puketitiri springs, 168, 205 
Pumice, formation of, 16, 20 
Puriri springs, 179 

Q 

Queenstown, climate of. 7, 220 
QuiSERNE, freshness of water, 231 



INDEX 



281 



R 
Rachel spring, 66, 189, 193 

,, radio-activity, 91 
Radio-activit}', effects on ionization 
and on colloids, 

233 
,, of gases, 90 

„ of Hanmer waters, 

98 
,, of mud, 91 

of sinters, 92 

of sulphur waters, 

91 
of Te Aroha waters, 
114 
Rahu springs, 168, 187 
Raukawa springs, 170. 182 
Rawlins, M., mercury, 71 
Raynaud's disease, 154 
Reaction of degeneration, 262 

,, to baths, 248 
Red coral geyser, 196 
Renal calcuU, 117, 157 
Rheumatic diseases, classification 

of, 137 
Rheumatism, 140, 148, 149 

electrical treatment 
of, 264 
Rheumatoid arthritis, 140, 161 
Rhythmic contraction of blood- 
vessels, 250 
RiTTER, blood, 251 
Roadman's bath, 167 
RoLLY, artificial pyrexia, 240 
Ross, correlated areas, 245 
Rotoitipaku spring, 196 
Rotokakahi spring, 171 
Rotorua, 54 et seq. 

acid waters, 75 
,, alkaline waters, 65 
,, cUmate, 55, 212 
Routes, ocean, 7 
RoviGHi, blood-count, 243 
Royat, 180 
Russian baths, 85 

S 
Sainte-Claire Deville, volcanic 

emanation, 29 
Salts in baths, effect of, 255 
Sanatorium, Government, 60, 100 
Saratoga springs, 114 
Scar tissue, treatment of, 263 
Scheffer, sihcates, 68 
Schnee bath, 259, 261 
Sciatica, 150 ' 

Scotch douche, 245 j 

Southland, rainfall of, 221 ' 



Scrofula, 176 
Seng, G., borates, 204 
Senility, treatment of, 161 
Selective action of douches, 245 
SiUca, 44 

action of algae on, 47 
Sihcates, 26 

action of, 67 
toxic action of, 69 
Siliceous waters, 191 
Silver in mud, 202 
Simple thermal waters, 134, 164 
Sinter, 44 

radio-activity of, 92 
Skin as an organ, 236 

,, heat regulator, 236 
,, indifferent temperature of, 
248 
Skin-heart, 79, 161, 250, 255' 
Soda spring, Taupo, 188 
Sodic muriated waters. 168 
Sodium bicarbonate, action of, 114 
bicarbonate in waters, 112, 

178 
borate, 28, 72, 95, 203 
chloride action of, 116 
in diet, 271 
• in lavas, 28 
in waters, 168 
sihcate, 67 
sulphide, 69 
Solfataras, 21 

"Sources savonneuses," 192 
South Bay spring, 195 
Spa, 187 
,, Taupo, 107 
,, treatment, 225 
Spas, 52 

choice of, 144 
Spasmodic contractions, 262 
Specific fevers and arthritis, 142 
Spinal paralyses, 154 
Spout baths, 64, 194 

radio-activity of, 91 
Steam, superheated, 35 
Stewart Island cUmate, 221 
Stewart, referred pain, 246 
Strasser, blood-count, 243 
Suggestion, 275 
Sulphur, action of, 70 

formation of, 22 
in lead poisoning, 71 
in mercury poisoning, 71 
, toxic effects of, 72 
waters, 191 
Sulphur Point Spring, 197, 202 
Sulphuretted hydrogen in baths, 
effects of, 69, 255 



282 



INDEX 



Sulphuretted hydrogen in vol- 
canoes, 21 
Sulphuretted hydrogen in waters, 

69 ; also vide Sulphur waters 
Sulphuric acid, 75, 198 
Sulphurous acid, 21, 29, 254 
Sweat glands, effect of baths on, 

242 
Syphilis, 71, 157, 176 



Table waters, 206 
Taheke springs, 167, 198 
Tapapa springs, 179 
Taranaki climate, 215 
Tarawera mountain, 12, 23 

,, springs, 125 
Tauniaranui springs, 175 
Taupiri springs, 187 
Taupo springs, 105, 200 
Te Aroha, radio-activity of waters, 

91, 114 
Te Aroha springs. 111, 179, 181, 

185. 187 
Te Koutu springs, 194 
Te Kuiti springs, 173. 177, 205 
Temperature of baths, effects of, 
247 
„ of body, effects ol 

baths on, 237 
Tepid baths, 251 
Te Puia springs, 128. 174, 176 
Terrace formation, 45 
Terraces, Taupo, 107, 196 
Te Teko springs, 167 
Thermal district, 11 
Tokaanu springs, no 
Tonicity table, 276 
Top spring, terraces, 195 
Totoro, 174 

Toxins, excretion of, 242 
Traumatic arthritis, 142 
Traumatism, 159 
Tubercular arthritis, 142 
Twins geyser, 104 

U 

Ulcers, chronic, 264 
Umupokapoka spring, 196 
Uric acid, 242, 269 

V 



Vapour baths, 85 
Vasomotor disturbances. 
Vegetables in diet, 271 
Vesical calculus, 117, 157 
Vichy, 179 



154 



Virgin waters, 18 
Volcanic waters, 25 
Volcanoes, formation of, 16, 21 
,, gases from, 21, 29 

mud, 47 

W 

Waiariki spring, 195 
Waihunuhunukiri spring, 194 
Waikitc, Ohinemutu spring, 194 
Waikohu spring, 183, 189 
Waikoura spring, 183, 187 
Waikupapapa spring, 198 
Waingaro, 136, 166 
Waiotapu, 101, 167, 196 
Wairakei, 103, 196, 200 
Wairakei geyser, radio-act. of, 91 
Waitangi spring, radio-act. of, 91 
Waiwera, 123 
Warm drinks, 235 
Waters, acid, 29, 75, 197 
,, acidulated, 192 

alkaline, 28, in, 178 

muriated, 124, 179 
sulphur, 65, 192 

arsenical, 199, 202 

borated, 94, 203 

calcareous, 118, 120, 130, 
184, 187 
,, calcic-sodic-muriatcd, 126, 
128, 171 

chalvbeate, 118, 120, 130, 
186 

iodine, 126, 175 

magnesium, 118, ISO 
,, muddy, 201 

muriated, 123, 168 

siliceous, 54, 191 

simple, 134, 164 

sulphur, 54, 191 

table, 206 
Waters (springs) : 

Aachen, 71, 210 

Abbotsford, 190, 200 

A. C. bath, Taupo, 195 

Akitio, 190 

Amberley, 191 

Aorangi, 188 

Arsenic spring, Taupo, 189 

Bagneres-de-Luchon, 193 

Bay of Islands, 190 

Boilers, 103, 109, 189. 200 

Borate springs, California, 
205 

Burton's, 203 

Cameron, 202 

Champagne, Waiotapu, 91; 
92 



INDEX 



283 



^Vaters (springs) — continued : 

Champagne, Wairakei, ig6 
Charteris Bay, 182 
Church Bay, 182 
Coffee Pot, 201 
Contrexeville, 184 
Copland River, 185, iqo 
Crow's Nest, 104, 195 
Devil's Eyeglass, 189, 200 
Fox River, 185, 190 
Franz Joseph, 167 
Friedrichshall, 181 
Gastein, 166 
Great Barrier, 174 
Hanmer, 94, 195, 205 
Harrogate, 193 
Haupiri, 167 
Heathcote, 183 
Helensville, 125, 170 
Hikutaia, 205 
Hokianga, 170 
Horakikimumuru, 198 
Ihuraua, 177, 186, i8g 
Iodine, Rotomahana, iSg, 

196 
Iron, Taupo, 188 
Kamo, 130, 181, 185, 1S7 
Katikati, 168, 171 
Kawhia, 173, 176 
Kopuowhara, 174, 177 
Kotuku, 174, 188 
Kreuznach, 171 
Kuirau, 194 
La Bourboule, 203 
Lake Sumner, 167 
McLean's, 171 
Magnesia, Taupo, 205 
Mahurangi, 171 
Manupirua, 196 
Maranga, 177 
Maruia, 167 

Matamata, 135, 167, 182 
Mataroa, 173, 177 
Matuatonga, 195 
Maungapakeha, 188 
Mercury Bay, 171, 175 
Miranda, 168, 205 
Mokau, 171 
Morere, 126, 174, 176 
Morinsville, 168 
Motu, 179, 190 
Mt. Egmont, 167 
Ngakawau, 173 
Ngaruapuia, 198 
Ngawha, 187 
„ Neilson's, 190 

Ohaewai, 180, 189, 200, 210 
Oil Bath, 194 



Waters (springs) — continued : 

Okains Bav, 173, 183, 18S 
Okoroire, 134, 166 
Onepu, 13, 196 
Onetapu, 191 
Ormond Valley, 182, 185 
Otway's, 179 
Paeroa, 119, 188 
Pahaua, 174, 177 
Papaiti, 170 
Parakao, 186 
Patangata, 188 
Pipiriki, 170 

Postmaster, 76, 79, 193, 197 
Priest, 76, 197 
Puketitiri, 168, 205 
Puriri, 179 
Rachel, 66, 189, 193 
Rahu, 168, 187 
Raukawa, 170, 182 
Red Coral Geyser, 196 
Rotoitipaku, 196 
,, Rotokakahi, 171 

Rotorua, 65 et seq., 189, 

193 et seq. 
Royat, 180 
Selters, 207 
Soda, Taupo, 188 
South Bay, Taupo, 195 
Spa, 187 
Spout Bath, 194 
Sulphur Point, 197, 202 

Terrace, 200 
Taheke, 167, 198 
Tapapa, 179 
Taumaranui, 175 
Taupiri, 187 
Taupo, 105, 109, 195, 196, 

200 
Te Aroha, 111, 179, 181. 

185, 187 
Te Koutu, 194 
Te Kuiti, 173, 177, 205 
Te Puia, 128, 174, 176 
Te Teko, 167 
Terraces, Taupo, 196 
Top spring. Terraces, 195 
Totoro, 174 
L'mupokapoka, 196 
Vichy, 179 
Waiariki, 195 
Waihunuhunukuri, 194 
Waikite, 194 
Waikohu, 183, i8g 
Waikoura, 185, 187 
Waikupapapa, 198 
Waingaro, 136, 166 
Waiotapu, 101, 167 



284 



INDEX 



"Waters (spnngs) — continued : 

Wairakei, 103, 109, 200 

Wairongoa, 181, 185, 207 

Waitangi, 187 

Waitoa, 179 

Waiwera, 123, 180, 188 

Wallingford, 175 
,, Wanganui River, 168, 170 

Webb's, 177 

Weber, 177 
,, Whale Island, 190, 199 
,, Whangape, 167 

White Island, 190, 199, 
203, 205 

Wiesbaden, 170 

Woodhall, 176 



Wellington, climate of, 214 
Westland, climate of, 216 
WiNTERNiTZ, blood-content, 243 
Withdrawal of liquid from body. 



241 



Y 



Young animals, effects of silicates 
on, 27 
,, neucleo-proteins ia 
flesh of, 270 



Zeller, silicates in cancer, 68 
ZiKGRAF, silicates in tuberculosis, 67 



Printed by Hazeii, Watson &■ Viney, Ld., London and Aylesbury. 









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